Name: Lucy Walter
Given Name: Lucy
Birth: 1630 in Hwlffordd, Dyfed, Cymru
Death: 29 Aug/Dec 1658 in Paris, France
Will: Dec 1658 Administration, Prerogative Court of Canterbury
WALTER, LUCY (1630?-58), gordderch y brenin Siarl II, merch ag iddi gysylltiadau a rhai o deuluoedd blaenllaw de-orllewin Cymru. Yr oedd ei thad, William Walter, Roch Castle, sir Benfro, yn wyr i William Walter a brynasai faenor Roch gan deulu de Longueville c. 1601. Ei wraig ef oedd Jane, ferch Francis Laugharne, S. Brides, a'i wraig Janet, ferch John Philipps, Castell Pictwn. Elizabeth Prothero (merch John Prothero, Nantyrhebog, sir Gaerfyrddin, ac Eleanor, ferch Walter Vaughan, y Gelli Aur, sir Gaerfyrddin) oedd ei fam: yr oedd hi, felly, yn nith i John Vaughan, iarll-laf Carbery [q.v.]. Bu rhieni Lucy yn ymgyndynnu'n gas am gyfnod hir. Ym mis Mai 1641 achwynodd y fam yn erbyn y tad, William Walter, gan ddywedyd iddo ei gadael, a llwyddodd i gael dyfarniad i gymryd ei stad oddi arno ('sequestration') ; yn ddiweddarach, fodd bynnag, sef yn 1647, diddymwyd y dyfarniad a rhoddwyd gofal y plant, sef Richard, Lucy, a Justus, ar y tad. Yn 1643 rhoes Richard Vaughan, ail iarll Carbery [q.v.], warchodlu a oedd o blaid y brenin, Siarl I, yng nghastell Roch. Cymerwyd y castell gan Rowland Laugharne [q.v.], wedi i fyddin y brenin gael ei gorchfygu ganddo yn Pil (ar hafan Aberdaugleddau), fis Chwefror 1644, eithr fe'i cymerwyd eilwaith (ym mis Mehefin) gan y Brenhinwyr o dan Syr Charles Gerard. Maentumiai William Walter fod ei golledion ynglyn a'r castell yn cyrraedd y swm o £3,000 ac iddo orfod ffoi i Lundain. Nid oes amheuaeth na bu'r teulu yn byw yn Llundain am gyfnod hir pan oeddid yn ymgyndynnu (fel y nodwyd uchod). Ni wyddys sut y bu i'r tywysog Cymru ieuanc ddyfbd i adnabod Lucy. Yn haf 1648 yr oedd hi gyda'r llys brenhinol (a oedd mewn encil) yn yr Hag; bu wedyn gyda'r llys ym Mharis. Ganwyd eu mab, James, yn Rotterdam, 9 Ebrill 1649, a bu i Lucy hefyd ferch, Mary, a anwyd yn yr Hag 6 Mai 1651. Yn 1656 dychwelodd Lucy i Lundain, eithr cymerwyd hi i'r ddalfa fel ysbiwr tybiedig a dodwyd hi, gyda'i morvvyn, Anne Hill, yn Nhwr Llundain. Y rheswm a roes hi yn ei hamddiffyniad ydoedd iddi ddychwelyd i gasglu cymynrodd o £1,500 a adawsid iddi gan ei mam, a fuasai farw ychydig cyn hynny. Gollyngwyd hi yn rhydd, eithr gorchmynnwyd iddi adael y wlad. Cafodd Siarl y plentyn i'w feddiant-yr oedd yn ei gydnabod yn fab iddo'i nun-a rhoes ef yng ngofal ei fam, sef y frenhines Henrietta Maria. Ar ol yr Adferiad crewyd ef yn ddug Monmouth ac yn ddiweddarach priododd Anne Scott, a oedd a hawl ganddi i'w galw ei hun yn iarlles Buccleuch. Yn ystod yr helynt ynglyn a'r 'Exclusion Bill,' 1679-81, rhoddwyd yr hanes ar led (a daethpwyd i gredu'r hanes yn bur gyffredinol) ddarfod i Siarl briodi Lucy Walter ac mai James, o'r herwydd, ydoedd gwir aer y-T goron.
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Bu Lucy f. yn Paris yn 1658. Bu ei brawd hynaf richard walter, yn siryf sir Benfro yn 1657. Dilynwyd ef yn stadau Roch gan ei fab richard walter a grewyd yn farchog ac a fu'n siryf yn 1727 pryd y cysylltid ei enw a Rosemarket.
Lord George Scott, Lucy Walter, Wife or Mistress', J. F. Rees, 'The Parents of Lucy Walter,' yn Studies in Welsh History, 1947; Francis Jones, 'The Squires of Hawksbrook,' yn Trans. Cymm., 1937.
WALTER, LUCY (1630?-1658), mistress of king Charles II, had connections with some of the leading county families in West Wales. Her father, William Walter of Roch Castle, Pembs., was the grandson of William Walter, who had purchased the manor of Roch from the de Longuevilles c. 1601. He had m. Jane, daughter of Francis Laugharne of S. Brides, and Janet, daughter of John Philipps of Picton Castle. Her mother was Elizabeth Prothero, daughter of John Prothero of Hawksbrook (Nantyrhebog), Carms., and Eleanor, daughter of Walter Vaughan of Golden Grove, and thus a niece of John Vaughan, 1st earl of Carbery (q.v.). Lucy's parents were involved in a long and acrimonious dispute. In May 1641 her mother complained that William Walter had deserted her and she obtained a sequestration order on his estate. This was ultimately revoked in 1647 when he was given charge of the children, of whom there were three, Richard, Lucy, and Justus. Roch castle was garrisoned for the king by Richard Vaughan, 2nd earl of Carbery (q.v.), in 1643. It was taken by Rowland Laugharne (q.v.) after his defeat of the Royalists at Pill (in Milford Haven) in Feb. 1644, but again seized for the king in the following June by Sir Charles Gerard. William Walter alleged that his losses there amounted to £3,000 and that he had been forced to flee to London. There is no doubt that the family spent much time in London in pursuance of the dispute which has already been mentioned. How the young Prince of Wales came to meet Lucy Walter is not known. She was with the exiled court at the Hague in the summer of 1648, and subsequently in Paris. Their son, James, was b. at Rotterdam on 9 April 1649. Lucy also had a daughter, Mary, b. at the Hague on 6 May 1651. In 1656 she returned to London and was arrested as a suspected spy and lodged, with her maid Anne Hill, in the Tower. Her defence was that she had come to collect a legacy of £1,500 left her by her mother, who had recently died. She was discharged and ordered to be deported. Charles II, who acknowledged the paternity of James, got possession of the child and handed him to the care of his mother, queen Henrietta Maria. After the Restoration he was created duke of Monmouth and was later m. to Anne Scott, in her own right countess of Buccleuch. At the time of the Exclusion Bill agitation (1679-81) the story that Charles had m. Lucy Walter and that, therefore, Monmouth was the rightful heir to the throne was put out and widely credited. Lucy herself d. in Paris in 1658. Her elder brother, RICHARD WALTER, was sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1657. He was succeeded in the Roch estates by his son, RICHARD WALTER, who was knighted and served as sheriff in 1727 and is then described as of Rosemarket.
Lord George Scott, Lucy Walter;
J. F. Rees, ?The Parents of Lucy Walter,? in Studies in Welsh History, 1947;
Francis Jones, ?The Squires o Hawksbrook,? in Trans. Cymm., 1937.
Emeritus Professor Sir James Frederick Rees, Ll.D., (1883-1967), Tenby / Cardiff
[Dictionary of Welsh Biography]
Walter, Lucy (1630?-1658), mother of James, duke of Monmouth, was the daughter of William Walter (d. 1650) of Roch Castle, near Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, and Elizabeth Prothero (d. 1652), daughter of John Prothero and niece of John Vaughan, first earl of Carbery. For about a year in 1648-9 Lucy was the mistress of the heir to the throne, Prince Charles, subsequently Charles II, and Charles was the acknowledged father of the boy born to Lucy on 9 April 1649. Christened James [see Scott, James], the child was the first of Charles II's many bastards, and was created duke of Monmouth in 1663. He became important politically in the 1670s and 1680s because of suggestions not only that he was the son of Charles II, but that he was also the legitimate son. During the exclusion crisis of 1679-82, and during the rebellion which Monmouth subsequently led against James II in 1685, a central political question was whether or not his mother had gone through a form of marriage with his father, Charles, in the course of their relationship in 1648-9. While most of the political nation was rightly sceptical (and Charles himself maintained absolutely that there had been no marriage), Lucy was by then dead, and there was just sufficient confusion over exactly what had taken place over thirty years earlier, and sufficient people with an interest in asserting that Monmouth was legitimate, for the story of a marriage to enjoy a scrap of credibility. The supposed marriage was critical, because if it had taken place, Monmouth was legitimate and thus, as the king's eldest son, was the heir to the throne. During the exclusion crisis this offered the whigs the easiest way of excluding the duke of York from the throne, while in 1685 it legitimized those who took up arms for Monmouth against James II. For these reasons Lucy Walter's short life is important as it explains why most of the political nation considered that a marriage between her and Charles was highly unlikely, but shows too that there were some straws available for the pro-marriage party to make use of.Lucy Walter was born at Roch Castle, Pembrokeshire. Her parents were middling Welsh gentry (her mother brought a dowry of £600 to her marriage), and though formally uneducated Lucy received the social manners which enabled her to mix with good society. This became important when, in 1640, her parents separated, her father remaining at Roch Castle while Lucy went with her mother to grow up in the cosmopolitan society of civil war London. At the end of the war she was briefly the mistress of the parliamentarian officer Algernon Sidney (1623-1683), who, according to James II, bought her services for 40 gold pieces. When, however, he was ordered away with his regiment, Lucy decided to seek a new lover where young aristocrats were thickest to be found, and took ship to join the exiled royalist camp in the Netherlands. Here she made herself known to the younger and royalist brother of her former lover, Robert Sidney (1626-1668). His time with her was brief, however, for in May 1648 part of the parliamentarian fleet mutinied and sailed to the royalists in Holland. This brought Prince Charles hurrying from France to inspect his new prize, and in a hectic week Lucy used her connections to meet, charm, and seduce the heir to the throne. Both were then just eighteen. She remained with him until September 1649, when he left for Jersey and thence to Scotland the following year. During this time John Evelyn remembered her as a ?browne, beautiful bold but insipid creature? (Evelyn, 2.561-2), and even James II conceded that she was ?very handsome, [though] of little wit, and some cunning? (MacPherson, 1.76).While Charles pursued his expedition to Scotland and England in 1650-1, Lucy Walter supported herself and her young son in the only way she could, taking as her protector Theobald, second Viscount Taafe, with whom she had a daughter, Mary (b. 1651). When Charles returned to exile in 1652, he made it clear that their relationship was finished, but Lucy refused to accept this, and for the next four years created so many scandalous scenes that in 1656 she was given some money and a pearl necklace and shipped with her children back to England. Incapable of living quietly, she soon attracted the attention of the government, and was imprisoned in the Tower. Deciding that not even the royalists could be using her as a spy, the republic sent her back to Flanders, while its propaganda sheet made capital out of this woman ?who passed for Charles Stuart's wife? (Mercurius Politicus). Back in Brussels Lucy resumed her stormy ways, now using her growing son as a means of leverage against Charles and his advisers. After an attempt to kidnap the boy had resulted in a public fiasco, she was persuaded in March 1658 to give him up to a tutor named by Charles. By then she had contracted venereal disease, and after making a general confession to John Cosin (later bishop of Durham), she died in Paris towards the end of 1658 at the age of twenty-eight and was buried there.Although the details of Lucy Walter's short relationship with Charles in 1648-9, together with the whole tenor of her life, made the notion of a marriage between the two highly implausible, Lucy's general confession of her life to Cosin became the basis for the most circumstantial of the marriage stories. It was suggested that, in this confession, Lucy not only swore that a marriage had taken place, but entrusted Cosin with documentary proof, which was kept in a ?black box?. Cosin's death in 1671 then left no direct witnesses when, in the 1670s, the enemies of James, duke of York, resurrected the Cosin story, and began a fruitless search for the ?black box?. Supporting evidence they uncovered amounted to nothing more than memories that in the 1650s Lucy had insisted that she was no mere mistress but a wife. The political nation remained unconvinced of Monmouth's legitimacy, although in 1679 Charles went to the length of formally denying, at the privy council, that he had ever been married to Lucy Walter. Lucy Walter's name is sometimes misspelt as Mrs Walters or Waters and during her life abroad she adopted the alias of Mrs Barlow or Barlo.Robin Clifton
J. MacPherson, ed., Original papers ? and life of James II, 3 vols. (1749) · The life of Edward, earl of Clarendon ? written by himself, 3 vols. (1759) · Evelyn, Diary · R. Clifton, The last popular rebellion: the western rising of 1685 (1984) · G. Scott, Lucy Walter, wife or mistress (1947) · DNB · Thurloe, State papers · The Nicholas papers, ed. G. F. Warner, 2, CS, new ser., 50 (1892) · Mercurius Politicus (10-17 July 1656) · CSP dom., 1655-8 · The life of Edward, earl of Clarendon ? written by himself, new edn, 3 vols. (1827)
double portrait (with the infant duke of Monmouth), priv. coll. · portrait, priv. coll. · portrait, priv. coll. · portrait, priv. coll. -© Oxford University Press 200411 All rights reserved: see legal notice
Robin Clifton, ?Walter, Lucy (1630?-1658)?, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/28639] Lucy Walter (1630?-1658): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28639
Complete list of Oxford DNB abbreviations
Institutions priv. coll. private collection
CSP dom. Calendar of state papers: domestic series
DNB Dictionary of national biography, 63 vols. (1885-1900), suppl., 3 vols. (1901); repr. in 22 vols. (1908-9); 10 further suppls. (1912-96); Missing persons (1993)
CS Camden Society
Evelyn, Diary The diary of John Evelyn, ed. E. S. De Beer, 6 vols. (1955); repr. (2000)
Thurloe, State papers A collection of the state papers of John Thurloe, ed. T. Birch, 7 vols. (1742)
Lucy Walter, by Sarah Stephens
Lucy Walter was an extraordinary dark-haired, blue-eyed Celtic beauty. She was called ?brown, beautiful, and bold?, even by John Evelyn and even James II conceded that she was ?very handsome, [though] of little wit, and some cunning?. Lucy was born at Roch Castle in 1630. She was the daughter of William Walter (d. 1650) of Roch Castle, near Havorfordwest, Pembrokeshire by Elizabeth (d. 1652), daughter of John Protero and niece of John Vaughn, first Earl of Carberry. The Walters were a Welsh family of good standing, who declared for the King during the Civil War. When Lucy was eight the Walters quarreled, each accusing the other of infidelity. The Roch Castle was captured and burned by Parliamentary forces in 1644. The family then moved, with Lucy and her brothers, Justus and Richard, to London. Two years later William Walter abandoned his wife and children and Mrs. Walter took refuge with her mother and her sister Margaret in a house at St-Giles-in-the-Fields. Margaret was married to a Dutch merchant, Peter Gosfright. They could do little for Mrs. Walter, who in 1640 brought an action for maintenance against her husband in the House of Lords, eventually obtaining 60 pounds a year from his estate.
According to some sources, Lucy Walter traveled with her uncle to The Hague via Paris with her Uncle during this time. Other historians claim that in 1644, Algernon Sidney paid Lucy fifty broad pieces to become his mistress and then she later became the mistress of his brother Robert Sidney, groom of the bedchamber to Prince Charles. It was allegedly through Sidney that Charles met Lucy. This story has been disputed by Coote who says that Algernon Sidney was not even in the area at the time. It is unclear when Lucy traveled to the continent or whether she met Charles at Golden Grove or in London. She is usually considered the earliest love of the Prince of Wales (later King Charles II), however this story has also been disputed and it has been said that Charles II had lovers dating back to 1644.
One of the basic questions about their relationship was whether Lucy and Charles married, as Lucy always insisted they did. To this day no one knows, although most historians believe there was no marriage. It is possible that they secretly married, especially when one considers that his brother, James II, secretly married a woman named Anne Hyde, daughter of Charles?s Lord Chancellor. Some historians argue they did in fact have a traditional marriage at Rhos market. It has also been asserted that Lucy was legally married to Charles on the Continent: even the place where the ceremony was alleged to have taken place, the city of Liege, has been confidently named though others claim the marriage took place in Paris. Additionally, it has been argued that Charles may have misled Lucy into believing they were married in any effort to have a relationship with her. These considerations later became the basis for the rumors of the ?black box?.
Nevertheless, by the time Charles left Holland, his son had been conceived and Lucy, now known as Mrs. Barlo(w), was his public mistress. At some time, probably, when he returned to The Hague two months later to find her pregnant, it is likely that Charles did indeed promise to marry Lucy. On 9 April 1649 their son, James Scott (later Duke of Monmouth) was born at Lucy?s Uncle?s house at Rotterdam.  During July and August 1649 she was with Charles in Paris. After the birth of the child, Lucy lived in the house of Mrs. Harvery. Charles, despite being short on funds, provided money which enabled Lucy to live in ?great splendor.? The child was placed under the care of an English nurse at the house of Mr. Claes Ghysen. It is possible that during the time James was under the care of a nurse, around his second birthday, that Charles? made the first of a number of attempts to kidnap the boy.
In June 1649, Charles returned from The Hague to Paris where he resided for three months. Lucy accompanied Charles to Paris. He returned to The Hague and then went to Scotland. During the summer of 1650, Lucy is said to have been with Colonel Bennet. Others say she passed this time with Theobald, second Viscount Taafe. In May of 1651, Lucy?s daughter Mary was born. It has been argued that she was the daughter of Charles or Taafe. It has also been said that she was Bennet?s daughter. Both were living at the Louvre, much to Henrietta Marie?s indignation but she could not afford to pay Lucy to leave. Taafe was keeping her and her children and the Queen Regent and Cardinal Mazarin, both preoccupied by the Fronde Revolution, ignored her complaints of the infamous Mrs. Barlow?s impertinences. Charles? behavior was characteristic. He had done with Lucy, but was perfectly willing that she and Taafe should remain under the same roof as himself, as long as he didn?t have to pay for her and could keep in touch with his son.
In October of 1651, Charles returned from Scotland to The Hague and when he proceeded to Paris, Lucy Walter went there as well. Others say he cut off contact at this point, but it appears this was not the case and that he actually continued to correspond with her as well as give her an expensive pearl necklace.
In June or July of 1652, Lucy went to London. It is said that she traveled to London with her brother, Justus, to recover a several thousand pound inheritance from her mother. However, it has also been argued that she had been acting as a Royalist spy at The Hague. Either way, she was arrested upon orders of Cromwell and sent to the Tower of London. On the 16th of July, she was released upon a warrant to Colonel Sir John Barkstead, the Lieutenant of the Tower. She called herself the wife of Charles II at this time. She was deported and ?set on shoar in Flanders.? It should be noted that she was treated with unusual courtesy during the entire proceeding, which may be evidence of her importance. From Flanders, Lucy proceeded to Paris to find that she had ?lost all favor with Charles II.? Nevertheless, he sent her messages promising her money and support, all the while publicly denouncing her. Ostensibly this was to prevent her from publishing ?certain papers which Charles was anxious to obtain, potentially the same papers which were the subject of the mystery of the black box.?
According to Chapman, Lucy became involved with Sir Henry de Vic, the King?s representative in Brussels around this time. Their relationship caused such talk that this rather simple gentleman became bent on marrying Mrs. Barlow. It is said they traveled to Cologne for Charles? permission. This was refused, de Vic was reprimanded for having left his post without leave and he, Lucy, and the child returned to Brussels. In January of 1655 Charles consulted with Sir Edward Hyde, first Earl of Clarendon and James Butler, first Duke of Ormonde and it was agreed that Lucy must, somehow, be pensioned; for she and de Vic had parted and she was then in sole care of the six year old James for whom his father was, as ever much concerned. Charles then sent Lucy a written promise of 400 pounds a year at four separate payments. So, presumably Charles tried to but could not forget the mother of his son. He could have threatened to stop her annuity if she became a nuisance; he could have handed her over to Sir Henry de Vic and saved himself 400 pounds a year. That he did neither seems to show that she still had a hold on him. A few months after she received the first installment Lucy and her children came under the protection of a married man, Colonel Thomas Howard, brother of Earl of Suffolk and master of the house to Mary of Orange. During this time, Lucy neglected the education of her young son, threatened Charles, and created public scandals around him while he was himself still dependent upon the goodwill of foreign royalty for his own support. Thus, Lucy came to be considered by Charles? sister Mary and his political advisors as a great obstacle to the hoped-for restoration of the monarchy, which looked increasingly possible as the Commonwealth faltered and Oliver Cromwell and his successor son were rapidly losing popularity in England. Unfortunately for Charles, Lucy had in her hands both his beloved son and a number of letters and papers apparently of critical importance to him. Increasingly desperate, Lucy threatened Charles that she would make these papers public. Some argue these papers provided proof of their marriage.
Shortly after Charles left Cologne, Lucy, still calling herself Mrs. Barlow, decided to leave the Dutch Netherlands for those of Spain presumably in order not to be drummed out of The Hague. This entailed her parting from Colonel Howard. In Antwerp she, young James, and her daughter were joined by Lucy?s two brothers Justus and John. At about this time it is rumored that John became a Cromwellian agent, reporting on Lucy?s dealings with the King and that under the name of Mr. Hall, he traveled to and from England. Additionally, around this time, Charles enlisted the assistance of Daniel O?Neill, known as the ?Infallible Subtle? to spy on Lucy. Although, it is unclear whether his report was true, O?Neill reported an affair with the married Thomas Howard that was creating so much scandal among the proper burghers of The Hague that the Orangists wanted her removed as soon as possible. O?Neill also reported that Walter?s maid was blackmailing her by threatening to spread the story of her adulterous liaison, as well as stories of two self-induced abortions. He even reported that a desperate Lucy suggested to him that they solve the problem of the maid by running a needle through the woman?s ear and into her brain while she was asleep. He advised the King not to give Lucy any more money and that if hew ere prepared to recognize James as his son that they get the boy away from his mother as soon as possible.
The irate and worried King was now determined to wrest his son from Lucy?s grasp and he arranged for James sand Lucy to be lodged in the house of his agent and Lord Bristol?s secretary, Sir Arthur Slingsby. Slingsby was order ?in a quiet and silent way, if it could be, to get the child out of the mother?s hands.? Slingsby caused a stir when he tried to have her arrested for failing to pay for her keep ad she ran into the street weeping and crying, clutching her son, when passersby came to her aid. Slingsby made matters worse by declaring that he was acting on behalf of the English King. This provoked such an uproar that the Governor of Brussels was forced to intervene and Charles could do nothing but find Lucy alternative housing. Charles employed Ormonde to explain the situation to the Governor of Brussels. He claimed that Lucy?s ?wild and disgraceful course? had exasperated all those involved and all concerned wished Lucy would quietly disappear and that failing to do so would only further injure her child and that anyone who helped Lucy in these circumstances would be doing an ?injury? to Charles and ?supporting? her would be in ?mad disobedience? to his pleasure. Faced with bullying such as this, an ailing Lucy vowed that she would publish all Charles? letters to her. O?Neil suggested that Slingsby get the letters and other such documents as she possessed as quickly as possible, while Charles sent his agent Edward Prodgers to Brussels to remove the boy from his mother?s care. Lucy made another public scene when Prodgers attempted to do so. The contest was too much for her though and eventually, exhausted and ill, she submitted to the inevitable and surrendered James to his father.
In December 1657, the boy was given to the Queen Mother, Henrietta Marie, who became responsible for his upbringing and put him in school at Port-Royal near Paris. Lucy?s objections were finally subdued by the threat that Charles would disown the boy if she tried to get him back. She was then driven from Brussels. Less than a year later, she died in Paris, where she had moved presumably to be as close as possible to her son in his nearby school.
The end of Lucy?s life is obscure. Bishop Kennet says that she was under the care of a clergyman. According to Evelyn, Lucy died in abject poverty. Another account says that Lucy became a penitent of Dean Cosin, later Bishop of Durham and while pretending to be converted from her loose manner in life, continued her vicious ways. James II said that she died of a ?disease incident to her profession.? In any event, Lucy died in October or November of 1658 and may have been buried in the Huguenot Cemetery in the Faubourg Saint Germain.
After Lucy Walter?s Death: The Continued Controversy
In January, March, and June of 1680 Charles made three official declarations that he was never married to Lucy Walter. James?s succession to the throne depended upon the illegitimacy of Monmouth, so the dead Lucy, it is said, had to be blackened by James and his supporters in order to stop any possible claim to the royal succession by her son. Most modern historians are skeptical of the worst version of Lucy?s life proposed after her death. Maurice Ashley in 1971 wrote that because of the fight for the throne, ?James?s opprobrious stories about the character of Monmouth?s mother are hard to credit and must be ignored by the impartial historian.? Antonia Fraser in 1979 wrote that Lucy was neither ?a whore, as one legend suggests, nor the chosen bride of the Prince of Wales. But she did belong to that restless and inevitably light-moralled generation of young ladies who grew up in the untrammeled times of the Civil War.?
The question whether Monmouth was legitimate and thus heir to the throne depends on whether Charles married Lucy. Therefore, everyone who did not want this to happen disparaged Lucy before and long after her death. She was called a ?whore? and said to have been ?low born?. Nevertheless, those who (included Protestants) feared James? Catholicism and the Parliamentarians who feared his royalist absolutism, believed James had developed too much of a dependence and a relationship with Louis XIV and had forgotten English rights. They needed a legitimate heir to keep James off the throne. So, even after Lucy?s death she was involved in great controversy in the Royal Court. By the late 1670s, the Parliamentarians were pushing hard to legitimize Monmouth by supporting Lucy?s claim that she and Charles II had been married. This effort became known as the affair of the ?black box? into which they said Lucy before her death had placed her marriage records and other documentary proof and given it to Anglican Bishop Cosin, whose death in 1671 left no direct witnesses to testify. The story was resurrected in the 1670s, at the height of the Exclusion Crisis, and a fruitless search for the ?black box? began. Witnesses swore they had received a black box from the Bishop or had seen it in someone else?s hands though neither the box nor the papers were ever found. Witnesses claimed that the box contained a contract of marriage between the two, signed at a ceremony performed by Dr. Fuller, Bishop of Lincoln. The black box, if it ever existed, must have been lost or destroyed, along with the papers inside. All of those who claimed to have seen the contents of the black box were called before the Council and denied having seen any documents during the Black Box Inquiry in 1680. Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bishop Cosin?s son-in-law, denied any knowledge of the Black Box despite his earlier allegations that his father-in-law left him the ?box? and that he had found the marriage contract inside.
However, the wife of one Mr. Lassels stated that Mrs. Sambourne, who was Lucy?s aunt, said, ?that her niece Mrs. Barlow had told her ?that she was married to the King.?? Also, it is argued that Bishop Paterson knew the names of the witnesses at the marriage ceremony. Additionally, hearsay evidence was presented that Oliver Cromwell?s officers confiscated the marriage certificate from Lucy while she was under arrest. Others noted that all records of birth and wedding filed in Lucy?s home county of Pembrokeshire in the year of Monmouth?s birth had been destroyed at the Restoration.
Throughout the inquiry Charles was very ill at ease, possibly due to a guilty conscience. The King then published a declaration he had made the previous year that he and Lucy Walter were not married (January 1678/9). A reply to the declaration was published in 1681 in the form of a pamphlet entitled, ?A Letter to a Person of Honour Concerning the King?s Disavowing Having been Married to the Duke of Monmouth?s mother.? This pamphlet has been attributed by some to Ferguson (?the plotter?) inferred that the King-in-exile had married Lucy Walter with his mother?s permission when his life was despaired of through the combination of an attack of smallpox and his frustration at being denied marriage to Lucy. Charles II also gave an oath to the Privy Council three times during this period and twice for publication in the government newspaper that in his whole life had married only the Queen. His declaration in March was registered in chancery. Later it was said that the third Duke of Buccleuch, Henry Scott, one day found a marriage certificate between Charles II and Lucy Walter in the muniment room at Dalkeith, and, in front of the Duke of Abercorn, burned the document.
On the 15th of July, 1685 the Duke of Monmouth, prior to execution signed a paper stating that the late King told him he never married Lucy Walter. However, this may occasion little weight since it was probably written to spare his descendants persecution following his death.
Although Lucy?s son was executed for treason, her family tree continued. Lucy?s daughter, Mary, married William Sarsfield (d. 1675) and secondly in 1676, William Fanshawe (d. 1708) with whom she had children. While a young daughter of Monmouth died of illness in the Tower where they were still living after his execution; Monmouth?s two sons became Scottish earls and one grandson and a great-great grandson became Dukes of Buccleugh. Monmouth?s widow married Charles, third Lord Cornwallis.
Lucy Walter also figures in the ancestry of the famous Spencer family of Althorp. Therefore, the late Diana, Princess of Wales and her son Princess William, heir-to-be to the British throne are distantly related the ill-fated mother of the Duke of Monmouth.
Arthur, Frank, The Abandoned Woman: The Story of Lucy Walter (1630-1658), Heinemann, 1964.
Bagford, John & Ebsworth, Joseph Woodfall, The Bagford Ballads: Illustrating the Last Years of the Stuarts, 1876.
Bryant, Arthur, The Letters, Speeches, and Declarations of King Charles II, Northumberland Press Limited, 1935.
Chandler, David G., Sedgemoor, Appendix D: The Mystery of the ?Black Box?, London: Anthony Mott Ltd, 1985.
Chapman, Hester W., The Tragedy of Charles II in the years 1630-1660, Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd, Bugay, Suffolk, 1964.
Clark, G.N., The Later Stuarts 1660-1714, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1934
Coote, Stephen, Royal Survivor: A Life of Charles II, St. Martin?s Press, 2000.
Evelyn, John, The Diary of John Evelyn, Dutton Adult, 1977.
George, Julia, A History of the English and Scottish Rebellions of 1685, Cady & Burgess, 1851.
Hale, Rev. E., The Fall of the Stuarts and Western Europe, Charles Scribner?s Sons, 1876.
Heron, G. Allan, Lucy Walter, Auburn University at Montgomery, 1929.
Macaulay, Thomas Sir, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, Harmondsworth, Eng.; New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
Scott, Lord George, Lucy Walter: Wife or Mistress. London: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd, 1947.
Steinman, George, Althorp Memoirs, J. Parker and Co, 1869.
"Walter, Lucy," Dictionary of National Biography. New York: Macmillan Co., 1908.
?Walter, Lucy? Dictionary of National Biography 2007 available at http://www.oxforddnb.com.proxy-remote.galib.uga.edu:2048/view/article/28639 (last viewed Nov. 20, 2007).
Watson, J.N.P., Captain-General and Rebel Chief: The Life of James, Duke of Monmouth, Appendix A: Circumstantial Evidence on Allegations that Charles II married Lucy Barlow, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1979.
Wyndham, Violet, The Protestant Duke: A Life of Monmouth, Chapter 7: The Black Box, Cox & Wyman Ltd, 1976.
 John Evelyn, Diary of John Evelyn, (Dutton Adult 1977) (1890).
 Lucy Walter, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, available at http://www.oxforddnb.com.proxy-remote.galib.uga.edu:2048/view/article/28639 (last viewed Nov. 12, 2007).
 She has been called Lucy Walters by other sources; however, according to the Dictionary of National Biography her name is Lucy Walter. Later in life, she went by the name of Mrs. Barlow or Barlo.
 "Walter, Lucy." Dictionary of National Biography. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1908).
 Hester Chapman, The Tragedy of Charles II in the years 1630-1660 108-110 (Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd, Bungay, Suffolk 1964).
 Stephen Coote, Royal Survivor: A Life of Charles II 60 (St. Martin?s Press 2000).
 Lord George Scott, Lucy Walter: Wife or Mistress 69 (London: George G. Harrap & Co. 1947).
 Supra note 5 at 131
 Supra note 7 at 164-166.
 Supra note 5 at 219.
 Allan G. Heron, Lucy Walter 21-23 (Auburn University at Montgomery, 1929).
 Supra note 7 at 127.
 Id. at 23-26.
 Supra note 5 at 285.
 Supra note 6 at 153.
 Supra note 5 at 307-308
 Supra note 6 at 153.
 Id. at 156-158.
 Supra note 2; Frank Arthur, The Abandoned Woman: The Story of Lucy Walter (1630-1658) (Heinemann, 1964).
 Supra note 12 at 27-28.
 John Bagford & Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, The Bagford Ballads: Illustrating the Last Years of the Stuarts 785 (1876).
 George Steinman, Althorp Memoirs 113 (J. Parker and Co. 1869). Sir Gerard earlier alleged that the Bishop made him promise not to open the box until the King died and he had found the marriage contract upon breaking that vow. Violet Wyndham, The Protestant Duke: A Life of Monmouth 83 (Cox & Wyman Ltd 1976).
 Supra note 7 at 55.
 David G. Chandler, Sedgemoor Appendix D (London: Anthony Mott Ltd. 1985).
 Wyndham at 84.
 Supra note 7 at 205.
 Wyndham p. 83
 Supra note 12 at 37-40; supra note 25 at 191.
 Supra note 4.
 Supra note 25 at 191; J.N.P. Watson. Captain-General and Rebel Chief: The Life of James, Duke of Monmouth, Appendix A, 276 (George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1979).
 Supra note 4.
Father: William Walter of Castell Roch
Mother: Elizabeth Protheroe
Charles II Stuart King of the Isles b: 29 May 1630 in St. James Palace, London, England
in St Thomas, Hwlffordd, Penfro, Cymru
There is another remarkable circumstance connected with the affair. Sometime antecedent to the middle of the last century [this would be at about the time of the '45 rebellion which could well have toppled the Hanovarian succession] under High Warrant from the Home Office, the Marriage Register of St Thomas, Haverfordwest, where the Walter family resided for some time, was sent for to headquarters. No reason was assigned for the requirement by those who applied for these documents, but it was afterwards asserted, and with considerable confidence, by some who were likely to be well informed in the matter that the register contained the record of a marriage which was solemnised a century before [ie in the 1640s] which, if it had been proved, would have been of some consequence, as regards the succession of the House of Brunswick.4 The Register was never returned!5
4 This would only be true if the Act of Settlement of 1701 had been repealed.
5 Personal enquiry by researchers at St Thomas reveals the story to be perfectly true .The present register starts in 1714 and registers for other churches serving similar sized towns and populations in Wales frequently lasted 100 years in those days.
[The Defence of Lucy Walter, 152]
The earliest parish register found within the county of Pembroke commencing 1600 for marriages is Hwlffordd, St Mary.
It is confirmed Hwlfordd, St Thomas marriages commence 1714, with bishops transcripts commencing 1813 and noted that the original parish records were removed from St Thomas.
- James Crofts Scott 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch b: 9 Apr 1649
- Mary Stuart
- Title: Y Bywgraffiadur Cymraig Hyd 1940
Publication: Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion
- Title: Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940
Author: John Edward Lloyd & R T Jenkins
Title: The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland
Author: Sir James Balfour Paul Lord Lyon King Of Arms
Publication: Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1914
- Title: Dictionary of National Biography
Author: Ed by Sir Leslie S
Publication: George Smith, Oxford Press, Vols 1-21 (Orignially published 1885-90)
- Title: Thoughts on the Prydderch/Protheroe connection with the Wogan family
Author: Janet Daniels
Publication: Dyfed Family History Society
- Title: Castell Gorfod Collection
Author: The Golden Grove Books of Pedigrees
Publication: MSS 7 (i-xxi) and 12
Text: The original manuscript was arranged in books labeled Book A, B, C, D, G, I, K, L, M, and N. Once bound in the Library of Wales, they became Books 1-21. (An extensive index at the beginning of film no. 104,349 lists what is contained in Books A-N.) Books A, D, G, I, K, and L are divided into more than one bound volume. Additional microfilmed pages from books B and G can be found under: Advenae of Pembrokeshire from the Golden Grove MSS.
Page: book 12, Advenae of Pembrokeshire, p.48
- Title: West Wales Historical Records, Volume V, Walter of Roch Castle
Author: Francis Green
Publication: Carmarthen, W Spurrell and Son, 1915
- Title: The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorian, The Squires of Hawksbrook
Author: F Jones
Publication: Cymmrodorion Society, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, England), 1937
- Title: The Defence of Lucy Walter
Author: T G Lamford OBE, LL.B
Publication: Salus Publications, Nanteos, 11 Llwyn y bryn, Ammanford, SA18 2ES, 2001
Title: The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant
Author: Editor: G.E. Cokayne, with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden
Publication: St. Catherine Press, 29 Great Queen St, Kingsway, W.C. 1959
- Title: The Defence of Lucy Walter
Author: T G Lamford OBE, LL.B
Publication: Salus Publications, Nanteos, 11 Llwyn y bryn, Ammanford, SA18 2ES, 2001