My North Carolina Roots

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  • ID: I763
  • Name: James EVANS
  • Surname: Evans
  • Given Name: James
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: ABT 1720 in Surry County, Virginia 1 2 3 4
  • Death: BEF Feb 1786 in Halifax County,North Carolina 5
  • _UID: A35CBD1D6E20FA4891F5AA8FFBC985E0916A
  • Note:
    James Evans, purchased 100 acres in Edgecombe County on 1 February 1752 on the north side of Conway Creek adjoining Thomas Hill, John Rogers, Theophilus Goodwin and Walter Pitts which was part of 640 acres granted to Thomas Bryant in 1728 [DB 4:196]. This part of Edgecombe County became Halifax County in 1758, and James and his wife Eliner of Halifax County sold (making their marks) this 100 acres on 26 January 1766 [DB 9:424]. Eleanor may have been identical to Ellender Evens who was counted in District no. 15 of Halifax County in the North Carolina state census, taken by Thomas Pace on 10 February 1786, with 1 white male 21-60 and a white female, adjoining Mornin Evens who was counted with 2 white males 21-60 and 2 white females nearby Thomas Thrower and Aaron Etheridge. (Email exchange with Paul Heinegg, 11/12/2003)

    (Abstracts of Deeds, Halifax County,North Carolina, 1771-1786):
    #781- (257) MOSES LITTLE to DOLPHIN DREW YOUNG. 2 Mar 1779. 250 pounds. 100 acres which was part of land acquired by ANN MELTON 17??, on south side of Kehukey Swamp, joining Foremans Mill Swamp, BENJAMIN BELL. MOSES LITTLE. Wit: JESSE BRYANT, JAMES EVINS. Aug Ct 1779 CC: Ben McCulloch
    (this may have been for James Evans Sr.)
    From "Patriot Chiefs and Loyal Braves, Chapter I, The Colonial Period," by Steven Pony Hill (
    Governor Clarence Gooch of Virginia reported to the Colonial Office for the years 1743 to 1747 that the "Saponies and other petty nations associated with them?are retired out of Virginia to the Cattawbas." This time period corresponds to the appearance of such English surnames as Harris, Stephens, Scott, Brown, and Canty among the Catawba.
    A 1761 report counted 20 Saponi warriors in the area of Granville County, NC and this corresponds to the "Mulatto, Mustee or Indian" taxation in Granville of such families as Anderson, Jeffries, Davis, Chavis, Going, Bass, Harris, Brewer, Bunch, Griffin, Pettiford, Evans, and others in the 1760's.
    In 1757, the Virginia governor at Williamsburg received a delegation of Indians including "King Blunt and the thirty-three Tuscaroras, seven Meherrins, two Saponies and thirteen Nottoways." This date corresponds to military and land records of "free persons of color" such as William Allen, Adam Ivey, James Evans, Benjamin Chavis, Allen Sweat, James Jones and Isham Scott who were residing in the ancestral Siouan areas of Halifax County, NC along the banks of the Roanoke River. John R. Swanton also reports that the Meherrin Indians "..were living on Roanoke River in 1781 with the southern bands of Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga."

    (Above Copyright 2006 Steven Pony Hill <>, all rights reserved, and may not be sold, nor given to anyone who may attempt to derive profit from same, without written permission of the author. It may be used in your family history or genealogy, for which purpose it was intended.)
    Is there something to the theory that this JAMES EVANS may have been of Native American origins? I don't know, but so far, I have been unable to find anything on him in North Carolina prior to his purchasing of land in 1752, so where did he come from? There is good circumstantial evidence that he is the same person who was in Surry County, Virginia in 1746, his wife's name of ELINOR and the ELIZABETH involved in the 1746 records are very similiar, perhaps too similiar to be a coincidence. From what I've learned, the Native Americans who had been housed at Fort Christianna from 1713 to 1720, were dispersed throughout the Colonies after the Governor decided to close it down, and many of the tribes settled in the surrounding Counties along the Virginia/North Carolina border areas. Surry County is situated in the same area as the Counties of Brunswick, Prince George, James City and York, which are also Counties where records of other EVANS of mixed heritage have been found. There are records regarding Surry County as follows (from the Surry County Virginia Website - ) In 1724 the Rev. John Worden, minister of Lawne's Creek Parish, made this report to the Bishop of London.
    "I arrived in Virginia in 1712, when Governor Spottswood sent me for six months to Jamestown. Thence I went to the parishes of Weynoake and Martins Brandon, both of which parishes were hardly sufficient to support a minister; therefore I removed to this parish, where I have been since January 30th, 1717." He says his parish is ten miles wide along the river and one hundred twenty long with seven hundred tithables in it. There are some Indians, bond and free, and negroes, bond and free. Some masters will have their negroes baptized, and some will not, because they will not be sureties for them. "I cannot persuade parents and masters to send their children and servants to be catechized. I sometimes get eight shillings and fourpence for my tobacco, per hundred, and sometimes no so much; and if I send it to Europe, perhaps it brings me in debt, as of late years it hath happened. The vestry will not keep my glebe-house in order; but if I choose to do it myself, I may and welcome. I have a church and chapel thirty miles apart, twelve communicants at the former, and thirty or forty at the latter."
    The Rev. John Cargill, minister of Southwark Parish, made a similar report.
    "I have been here sixteen years. My parish is twenty miles in width and one hundred inhabited in length, being a frontier parish. It has three hundred and ninety-four families. The school of Mr. Griffin, called Christina, for Indians, is on the borders of my parish. There is one church and two chapels and seventy or eighty communicants. My tobacco now sells at five shillings per hundred; my salary from thirty to forty pounds. My glebe house is in a very bad condition, and the parish will not repair it, so I
    must look out for a house elsewhere. No school, no library, in the parish."
    My thought is, could it have been possible that after the dispersal of these tribes, that some of them intermarried with the population living in the nearby cities or towns, either the white or the black or even the persons that were already of mixed heritage themselves? I think it very telling that it does seem to be that quite a few of these families with questionable heritages do turn up first around the early 1700 time period, and perhaps there really is some truth to the theory that some of them may have been from intermarriages made in pre-Revolutionary War times.
    From the Searching for Saponitown website, the following info is something to keep in mind which may be of importance in finding what tribe some of these families may have come from at some point in the future:
    The Indian Tribes of North America
    by John R. Swanton

    Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term "moni-seep" signifying "shallow water." Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word "Pawnee."

    Connections - The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo.

    Location.- The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with "an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway." This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New York.)

    Villages - The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town.

    History - As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they moved to the southwest and probably settled on Otter Creek, as above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their
    new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long afterward they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke River in Mecklenburg County. This movement was to enable them to escape the attacks of the Iroquois, and for the same reason they again moved south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on the Yadkin River near the present site of Salisbury, NC. Soon afterward they left this place and gravitated toward the White settlements in Virginia. They evidently crossed the Roanoke River before the Tuscarora War of 1711, establishing themselves a short distance east of it and 15 miles west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. A little later they, along with the Tutelo and some other tribes, were placed by Governor Spotswood near Fort Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River about the present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name of Sappony Creek in Dinwiddie County, dating back to 1733 at least, indicates that they sometimes extended their excursions north of the Nottoway River.

    By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois agreed to stop incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 1740, the greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north stopping for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. One band, however, remained in the south, in Granville County, N. C., until at least 1756, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753 the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo. Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section had their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south of Ithaca, NY.. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga on Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in North Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora, Meherrin, and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.

    Population ~ The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney (1928) as remnants of the Mannhoac and Monacan with an estimated population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found 200 Saponi, Manaboac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765, when they were living on the upper Susquehanna, the Saponi are said to have had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band counted 20 warriors in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men and 14 women in 1755.

    Connection in which they have become noted ~ A small place called Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C., east of the Yadkin River, preserves the name of the Saponi.

    Virginia Native History

    (Source unknown at the moment)

    AT THE dawn of the seventeenth century, three distinct groups of Indian tribes, representing three different linguistic stocks, occupied the territory that is now Virginia. Along the coast and up the tidal rivers to their falls were the many palisaded settlements of the Algonquian group, the Powhatan confederacy, enemy of the Siouan stock composed of the Monacan and Manahoac federations that spread from the banks of the upper James and the headwaters of the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers to the Allegheny Mountains. The bellicose and scattered Iroquoian stock was represented by the Conestoga (Susquehanna) tribe of nearly 6oo warriors living in fortified towns near the headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay; the Rickohockan or Rechahecrian (who are identified with the Cherokee by most ethnologists, as the Yuchi by John Reed Swanton), occupying the mountain valleys of the southwest; and the Nottoway in the southeast.

    During their first years in Virginia the colonists of the London Company found along the rivers and coast some 200 villages under the leadership of Wahunsonacock, known to the colonists as Powhatan. This chief of an Algonquian confederation, which consisted of about 2,400 warriors, had inherited the territories of the -Powhatan, Arrowhatock, Appamatuck, Pamunkee, Youghtanund, and Mattapament, to which, by later conquest, he had added other tribes, bringing the number under his dominion up to 30Of the 36 'King's howses' or tribal capitals, Werowocomoco, on the left bank of the York River, was Powhatan's favorite, and the one in which, as a prisoner in 16o8, Captain John Smith first saw the powerful chieftain.

    Arriving at Weramocomoco [Werowocomocol their Emperour proudly lying uppon a Bedstead a foote high, upon tenne or twelve Mattes, richly hung with manie Chaynes of great Pearles about his necke, and covered with a great Covering of Rakaugkcums. At [his] heade sat a woman, at his feete another; on each side sitting uppon a Matte uppon the ground, were raunged his chiefe men on each side the fire, tenne in a ranke, and behinde them as many yong women, each [with] a great Chaine of white Beades over their shoulders, their heades painted in redde: and, [Powhatan] with such a grave Maiesticall countenance, as ve me into admiration to see such state in a naked Salvage."

    Displacement of the Indians began almost simultaneously with the finishing of the first stockade at Jamestown. Before the colony was two years old, the principal Indian settlements had been seized, Powhatan had withdrawn to a remote town on the Chickahominy River, and the Indians were so intent on revenge that no Englishman was safe outside the fort. Temporary suspension of hostilities, however, was established by the marriage of John Rolfe and Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas, in 1614, after which the colonists 'had friendly trade and commerce, as well with Powkatan himselfe, as all his subjects.'

    In the treaty of peace that followed, the Indians acknowledged the British as their masters. But the chief of the Pamunkey tribe, Opechancanough, who succeeded Powhatan in reality though not nominally, was determined to annihilate the white invaders. In 1662 his carefully planned attack resulted in the massacre of some 350 settlers. The colonists who escaped, forewarned by a converted Indian boy, retaliated at once, and during the autumn of 1622 and the following winter killed so many Indians and destroyed so many of their settlements that for more than 20 years there was a truce. But in 1644, Opechancanough, now old and feeble, decided upon a last effort. In the uprising that began on April 18 with a sudden massacre along the whole border, the Indians were routed and Opechancanough was captured and brought to Jamestown, where he was murdered by an outraged colonist. In October 1646 his successor made a treaty of submission by which the Indians agreed to abandon everything below the falls of the James and Pamunkey Rivers and to restrict themselves on the north to the territory between the York and the Rappahannock.

    The Jamestown settlers' contact with the Indians of Siouan stock was limited. A week after landing, on May 21, 1607, Christopher Newport with a party of 23 pushed up the James to the falls, where they were told by Pawatah (Powhatan) that it was a 'Daye and a halfe Iorney to Monanacah . . . his Enmye,' who 'came Downe at the fall of the leafe and invaded his Countrye.' In the autumn of 1608 Captain Christopher Newport, 'with 120 chosen men,' went up 'fortie myles' past the falls and discovered on the south bank of the James two Monacan towns. The first, Mowhemenchouch ( Mowhemcho), was an open settlement, through which John Lederer passed in 1670, calling it Mahock, which Francis Louis Michel, a visitor in 1702, called Maningkinton, and which a Huguenot colony took possession of in 1699. It later became Monacan Town. The second village, 14 miles distant, was Massinacack. In August 1608 Captain Smith with 12 men and the Indian guide Mosco, 'a lusty Salvage of Wighcocomoco ascended the Rappahannock, had an encounter with Manahoac Indians (of whom some 12 tribes wandered over the Rapidan-Rappahannock area of the Piedmont section), and from an Indian named Amoroleck received the information about the Siouan tribes that is contained in his Description of Virginia (16 12):

    Upon the head of the river of Toppakanock [Rappahannock] is a people called Mannahoacks. To these are contributers the Tauxanias, the Shackaconias, the Onlpowaw, the Tegninatoes, the Whonkenteaes, the Stegarakes, the Hassinnungaes, and divers others; all confederats with the Monacans, though many different in language, and be very barbarous, living for most part on wild beasts and fruits.

    The Monacan confederacy, dwelling 'upon the head of the Powhatans' along the James above the falls, consisted, according to Smith's enumeration, of the Monacan proper, 'the Mowkemenchughes, the Massinnacacks, the Monahassanughs, the Monasickapanougks,' together with other tribes not named. The'chiefe habitation' of this confederacy of five tribes, whose generic name of Monacan applied also to the territory they occupied, was Rasauweak (Rassawek), at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers.

    The allied Monacan and Manahoac confederacies were constantly at war with the Powhatan and the Iroquois (the Massawomek of John Smith and the Massawomees of Jefferson), 'their most mortall enemies.'

    Banded into a league late in the sixteenth century, the powerful Iroquois began thereafter their gradual descent upon these weaker tribes of the south, annihilating some and causing others to flee, eventually to merge for protection ~ thus completely shattering the tribal pattern existing in 1607. About 1656, "the Mahocks, and Nahyssans," according to Lederer, but more probably the Shackoconian tribe of the Manahoac confederacy, seeking a new dwelling place, "sett downe near the falls of James river, to the number of six or seaven hundred."

    In an attempt to dispel them, the English, who were joined by the Pamunkey under Totopotomoi, precipitated what was perhaps the bloodiest Indian battle ever fought on the soil of Virginia, the last great fight between Siouan and Algonquian tribes. The Powhatan, who had suffered even more at the hands of the English than at those of the Iroquois, became by 1665 mere dependents of the colony, submissive to the stringent laws enacted that year, which com pelled them to accept chiefs appointed by the governor. After the Treaty of Albany in 1684, the Powhatan confederacy all but vanished.

    The exploratory trip made in 1670 by John Lederer, a German who received a "commission of discovery" from Governor Berkeley, lifted the veil that had so long covered the activity of these Siouan tribes. Drastic changes, caused by the hostile wedge formed by the Iroquois in the north and by the English in the east, had taken place among the confederations in a little more than half a century.

    Leaving the falls of the James, Lederer went southwest "toward the Monakins," then "from Mahock" (Mohemcho), the tribe's town "into the province of Carolina," finding in "these parts . . . formerly possessed by the Tacci, alias Dogi," the tribe of Nahyssan (the Monahassanugh of John Smith) still living at their village on the James. This tribe, called Hanohaskie by Thomas Batts (1671), became in later narratives the Tutelo (Totero or Todirish-roone), a generic Iroquoian name applicable to all Siouan tribes in Virginia and Carolina. A subtribe of the Tutelo was the Saponi (the Monasickapanough of John Smith), who had moved from the Rivanna to a tributary of the upper Roanoke, where their town of Sapon was visited first by Lederer and then by Batts. Other tribes of Siouan stock were the Nuntaneuck (the Tauxanias of Smith); the Akenatzy (Occaneechi), who lived on an island in the Roanoke River; the Managog (Manahoac), who had but lately roamed the upper Piedmont region; and the Monakin or Monacan, who occupied the village of Mohemcho. All these tribes were of Siouan stock.

    Between 1671. and 1701 the Saponi and Tutelo tribes withdrew from their position at the base of the mountains, directly in the path of the Iroquois, and settled on two islands in the Roanoke River near the one inhabited by their kinsmen the Occaneechi, an important tribe whose island was the great trading center "for all the Indians for at least 500 miles." The Occaneechi's wealth, however, was their undoing. In 1676, the Susquehanna (Conestoga), driven from their Chesapeake Bay home by the Iroquois and the English, fled to the Occaneechi, whom they tried to dispossess. In the battle that ensued, the Susquehanna were driven from the island. In May of the same year, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., with 200 Virginians, arrived there in pursuit of the Susquehanna, joined the Occaneechi, and put the Susquehanna to flight. The latter settled near the Nottoway tribe, their Iroquois kinsmen, and became the Meherrin.

    Afterwards the whites turned on the Occaneechi, whereupon this tribe abandoned its island home, fled into Carolina, and eventually combined with the Saponi, Tutelo, and other tribes of Siouan stock in a body numbering about 750 persons. In 1705, according to Robert Beverley, the Indian population within the explored portions of Virginia numbered fewer than 500 able-bodied men, of whom 350 were remnants of tribes once belonging to the Powhatan confederacy.

    Through the persuasion of Governor Spotswood, who hoped to protect them from the Iroquois and at the same time to make them a barrier between the Virginia settlements and the hostile southern tribes, the Saponi, Tutelo, 'Stukarocks,' and federated tribes moved in a consolidated group from Carolina to the vicinity of Fort Christanna, shortly after the opening of the Tuscarora War (1711-12). Here Spotswood, to secure the fidelity of the smaller tribes, began a school to which were admitted as pupils and hostages-the children of chiefs. But this seed of civilization fell on sterile ground. The Saponi, or, as they were then commonly called, the Christanna Indians, were still at war. Quarrels persisted between them and the neighboring Nottoway and Meherrin; while the more distant Iroquois, who cherished toward these people 'so inveterate an enmity' that it could be "extinguished" only by their "total Extirpation," continued their attacks.

    Finally, Governor Spotswood, hoping to put an end to the warfare between the Iroquois and the southern tribes, in 1722 promoted the Albany (N.Y.) Conference, at which a peace treaty was signed by the Five Nations of the Iroquois and their allies, the Tuscarora, Shawnee, and others on the one hand, and by Virginia and its tributary Indians on the other. Thus the long war ended and peace finally came in Virginia to "the Nottoways, Meherrins, Nansemonds, Pamunkeys, Chichominys, and the Christanna Indians" ~ called 'Todirich-roones' by the Iroquois, and comprising 'the Saponies, Ockineeckees, Stenkenocks [Stegarakes], Meipontskys, [Ontponeas] & Toteroes,' all of whom were grouped at "Sapponey Indian town," which was "about a musket-shot from the fort.'"

    Dissatisfied with the proximity of white settlements and at peace with the Iroquois, the restless Saponi, Tutelo, and such allied tribes as the Occaneechi and the Stegarake (only survivor of the Manahoac confederacy) abandoned the settlement near Fort Christanna, about 1740, went first to Pennsylvania and then to New York, where they placed themselves under the protection of their traditional enemy, becoming in 1753 a part of the Six Nations.

    During the first half of the eighteenth century the Shenandoah Valley ~ last frontier of Virginia ~ was the hunting ground of such nonresident Indian tribes as the Delaware, Catawba, and Shawnee, among whom there was continual warfare. After the completion of a chain of forts along the border for the protection of white settlers, the Indians suddenly withdrew from the valley in 1754, but returned in 1756 at the beginning of the French and Indian War. Depredations continued until the end of the war in 1763, after which the valley was left in peace. The Cherokee, as the white settlements pressed upon them in their mountain fastness, moved gradually westward.

    In 1768, Governor Francis Fauquier, answering a question propounded by the Lords of Trade and Plantation, revealed the state to which the aborigines of Virginia had been reduced. "The number of Indians residing in the known parts of this Colony," he wrote, "is very small, there being only some remains on the Eastern Shore and Pamunkey Indians, who are so far civilized as to wear European dress, and in part follow the customs of the common Planters. Besides these there are some of the Nottoways, Meherrins, Tuscaroras and Saponeys who "tho' they live in peace in the midst of us, lead in great measure the Life of wild Indians. The number of all these decrease very fast owing to their great fondness for Rum."

    These remnants were the amalgamation of some of the numerous tribes that had roamed the forests of Virginia. The Nottoway, strong during the first settlement period and greatly outnumbering the Powhatan in the provincial census of 1669, were by 1820 reduced to 27 persons, of whom only three spoke the tribal language. The Meherrin, the other Virginia tribe of Iroquoian stock, equaled in number the Pamunkey ~ originally the strongest tribe of the Powhatan confederacy ~ in 1699, after which they rapidly vanished. The Nansemon (tribe of the Powhatan confederacy, composed of some 300 warriors in 1622, had dwindled to 45 men by 1669. In 1744 they joined the Nottoway. Today, in Virginia, there are several groups and scattered families of Indian descent in the forests of Virginia. The Nottoway, strong during the first settlement period and greatly outnumbering the Powhatan.

    Description of the sedentary Powhatan Indians in their "pallizadoed townes" formed much of the substance of early writings on Virginia. "Their habitations or townes" were "for the most part by the rivers, or not far distant from fresh springs, commonly upon a rise of a hill. Many settlements, particularly those on the Bay, were protected by encircling palisades, as depicted in the water-color drawings of Secotan and Pomeioc (in Carolina) made in 1585 by "Maister John White, an Englisch paynter."

    Where there was less danger of attack, the habitations of the Algonquian spread out unprotected on the river shore. Werowocomoco, Powhatan's favorite village, and Kecoughtan (at or near the present site of Hampton) were typical. "Kegquouktan . . conteineth eighteene houses," wrote Smith in Newes from Virginia, "pleasantly seated upon three acres of ground, uppon a plaine, halfe invironed with a great Bay of the great River . . . the Towne adioyning to the maine by a necke of Land of sixtie yardes. Placed under the covert of trees," the houses-all alike, "scattered without forme of a street," and "warm as stoves, albeit very smoakey" ~ were like "garden arbours." A framework of poles was set in two parallel rows inclosing the floor space. Opposite poles were bent over and lashed to one another in pairs to form a series of arches of equal height, and these arches were joined by horizontal poles placed at intervals and securely tied together "with roots, bark, or the green wood of the white oak run into thongs."

    Each of the flat ends had a door hung with mats. Outside stood a wooden mortar and pestle for grinding com. The smoke from the fire kindled on the ground inside escaped through a small vent in the roof. The coverings were generally of bark or mats of rushes, occasionally of boughs. The ordinary dwelling, which housed from 6 to 20 people, contained but one room, on each side of which were platforms or bedsteads about a foot high and covered with 'fyne white mattes' and skins.

    In "square plotts of cleered grownd" near these bark-covered houses, the women raised tobacco and such vegetables as corn, beans, an herb called "melden," squash, "pumpons and a fruit like unto a musk millino." Maize was so important that platforms were erected in the fields, where watchers were stationed to protect the crop from birds, and the shelled corn filled storage baskets that took "upp the best part of some of their houses." Among the roots used for food were groundnuts (A pios tuberosa) and tuckahoe( Peltandro Virginica and Orontium aqualicum).

    In March and April the Powhatan lived on their '"weeres," feeding on "fish, turkies and squirrells," the fish being caught in fish dams or shot with "long arrows tyed in a line"; in May they "set their come"; and in the "tyme of their huntings" they gathered "into companyes" with their families and went "toward the mountaines," where there was "plenty of game."

    The empire ruled over by Powhatan was reduced to subdivisions, each with a governmental hierarchy consisting of the cockarmse or sachem, the werowance or war leader, the tribal council, and the priests. Nor did the scheme vary under Opechancanough. "This revolted Indian King with his squaw," wrote Thomas Martin in 1622, "conunaundeth 32 Kingdomes under him. Everye Kingdome contayneigne ye quantitie of one of ye shires here in England. Everye such Kingdome hath one speciall Towne seated upon one of ye three greate- Rivers . . ." Dwellings and gardens were owned privately, but all other property was held in common.

    Typical of the Iroquoian type of town was the village of the Nottoway, which William Byrd visited in 1728. A strong palisade, about 10 feet high, surrounded a quadrangle dotted with long communal "cabins . . . arched at the top, and covered with bark."

    Inside there was no furniture except "hurdles" for repose. The fortification served as a place of refuge for members of the tribe living in outlying districts. The towns of the Siouan tribes were similar. Within the enclosure of those that were palisaded stood the prominent round "town house" surrounded by the "arbour-like" dwellings of the people.

    The Cherokee towns spread out a1ong the banks of mountain streams or in a valley. Close by the dwellings of logs chinked with clay stood a conical earth-covered lodge known as the "winter hot house." On an artificial mound in the center of the village was the large oblong "council house," center of all tribal ceremonies.

    The male Indian costume consisted of garments of skins or woven fiber, and moccasins; the women wore skirts of fringed deerskin or woven silkgrass fiber (silk weed or Indian hemp, Asclepias pulchra), which reached from the waist to the middle of the thigh. Members of both sexes wore in winter mantles made of skins and feathers. Feathered headgear, necklaces of clam shells, beads, or pearls, copper pendants, wampum head rings, and body tattooing completed the garish personal decoration. The Siouan Indians of 'Sapponey Town,' visited by Byrd in 1728, had probably varied little since early days in their traditional war dress. With "feathers in their hair and run through their ears, their faces painted with blue and vermillion, their hair cut in many forms," they were "really . . . very terrible." Both men and women greased their bodies and heads with bear's oil or walnut oil mixed with paint, either of, which yielded an "ugly smell." The "Sweating-houses," little huts built with wattles, were also tribal survivals. Heated by red-hot pebbles, they were used by sick Indians to sweat out maladies, "a remedy . . . for all distempers."

    The handicrafts were exclusively woman's province ~ the making of wooden dishes and trays, "earthern pottes" and the thread spun from "'barks of trees, deare sinews, or a kind of grasse they call Pemmenaw," which was used variously as "lines for angles," nets for fishing, sewing the deerskin mantles, and the making of baskets and "aprons . . . women wear about their middles, for decency's sake."

    In their monotheistic religion , according to Lederer, the Indians worshiped Okee, called also Mannilk, the "creator of all things." To him alone the high priest or Periku offered sacrifices. "The government of mankind" was assigned to "lesser deities, as Quiacosough and Tagkanysough ~ that is, good and evil spirits." Smith, however, says "their chief God" was "the Devil, him they call Okee."

    Burial customs varied among the different tribes. Within most of the temples were the image of Okee and the sepulchers of kings. The Algonquian buried ordinary members of the tribe in pits; while the bodies of the chiefs were disemboweled, dried, stuffed with sand, wrapped in skins and mats, and then laid in the temple. Henry Spelman, who lived among tribes along the Potomac prior to 1610, described a burial resembling the type used by Indians of the Plains. The body, wrapped in mats, was laid on a scaffold about three or four yards high. Ossuaries were common among the southern Algonquian and the Siouan tribes of the Piedmont. The bones of the dead, in a reburial ceremony, were deposited in great pits until a huge mound was formed.

    Today, along the shores of Chesapeake Bay and the banks of many of its tributaries are heaps of oyster shells, containing bits of pottery and stone implements, which mark the position of many ancient Algonquian settlements, some having flourished long after 1607. Westward, along the valley of the James from the falls to the mountains, in the section once dominated by the Siouan tribes, are traces of their village and campsites on the banks of streams, where fragments of pottery and stone implements are scattered over the surface. The same district contains soapstone quarries and occasionally a macabre ossuary. In the Rappahannock-Rapidan area most of the mortars, long cylindrical pestles, hammers, discoidal stones, and pipes have been garnered; but occasionally axes, projectile points, and bits of pottery are brought to the surface by freshets or turned up by the plow.
  • Change Date: 25 Jul 2017 at 13:42:58

    Marriage 1 Elinor Elizabeth WALDEN b: ABT 1725 in Surry County, Virginia
      1. Has Children James EVANS b: ABT 1750 in Edgecombe County,North Carolina
      2. Has Children Mourning EVANS b: ABT 1760

      1. Title: Other--
        Page: (Paul Heinegg)
        Note: James1 Evans, born say 1720, was living in Surry County, Virginia, on 16 April 1746 when he and Elizabeth Walding (Walden) were presented by the churchwardens for living in adultery [Orders 1744-49, 166]. He may have been the James Evans who was in Captain William West's muster of Edgecombe County, North Carolina Militia in the 1750s, listed next to Francis Scott and near John and Abraham Scott [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 680]. He may have been the father of
      2. Title: Other--
        Page: Email from Paul Heinegg (
        Note: Subject: JAMES EVANS
        Edgecombe County Deeds: (
        William Atkieson of Edgecombe to James Evans, Jr., of same, 16 Nov 1754, 10 pounds for 222 acres joining Pollock, Richard Lewis, Aaron Etheridge and Thomas Thrower. Wit: Edward Collins, John Atkieson, Mathew Jones.
        DB 2: 112. Hoffman Abstracts, P.51

        John Rogers of Edgecombe Co. to James Evans of Edgecombe. 1 Feb. 1752, 10 pounds for 100 acres on north side Conway Creek adj. Thomas Hill, the sd, Rogers, Theophilus Goodwin and William Pitts.
        DB 4: 196. Hoffman Abstracts, P.136
        From "Abstracts of Deeds, Edgecombe Precinct, Edgecombe County, North Carolina 1732-1758", Margaret M. Hofmann:
        pg.196 JOHN ROGERS of Edge. Co. to JAMES EVANS of Edge. Co. 1 Feb 1752 - 10 pounds VA money 100 acres on the north side of Conway Creek, joining THOMAS HILL, the sd. ROGERS, THEOPHILLUS GOODWIN and WALTER PITTS all houses, orchards, gardens etc. part of 640 acres granted to THOMAS BRYANT.
        4 Mar 1728 Wit: THOMAS HILL, EDWARD COLLINS. Reg. Edge. Co. Feb. Ct. 1752 B. Wynns C.Ct.

        PG. 112 - WILLIAM ATKIESON of Edge. Co. planter to JAMES EVANS JR. of Edge. Co. 16 Nov. 1754 10 pds VA money 222 acres more or less joining POLLOCK, RICHARD LEWIS, AARON ETHERIDGE and THOMAS THROWER Wit: EDWARD COLLINS, JOHN ATKIESON, MATHEW JONES. Reg. Edge. Co. Nov. Ct. 1754 B Wynns, C. Ct.
        Date: 11/10/2003 6:29 P.M.
      3. Title: Other--
        Note: Folder Land entries Warrants Plats Deeds Secretary of State, Office of Granville Proprietary Land Office Secretary,
        Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax Co. [] 1759, 1760
        Month and day of deed not shown. For deed see
        Halifax County, E-J Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax Co.
        Land Entry: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Warrant: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Plat: 1760 May 6. 450 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Walter Pitt, John Bradford, Thomas Thrower
        Chain carriers: John Langston, Richard Hill
        Surveyor: Joseph John Williams
        Deed: 1760 Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax County
        Pollock, Thomas; Pitt, Walter; Thrower, Thomas; Lewis, Richard; Evans, James; Bradford, John; Langston, John; Hill, Richard; Williams, Joseph John;
        Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax Co. [] 1759, 1760
        Month and day of deed not shown. For deed see
        Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax Co. [] unitdate 1759, 1760 unitid note Month and day of deed not shown. For deed see
        E-J Hill, Thomas, Jr. Halifax Co.
        Land Entry: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Warrant: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Plat: 1760 May 6. 450 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Walter Pitt, John Bradford, Thomas Thrower
        Chain carriers: John Langston, Richard Hill
        Surveyor: Joseph John Williams
        Deed: 1760 p Land Entry: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, p Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Warrant: 1759 November 8. 640 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Pollock, Walter Pitt, p Thomas Thrower, Richard Lewis, James Evans
        Plat: 1760 May 6. 450 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Walter Pitt, John Bradford, Thomas Thrower
        Chain carriers: John Langston, Richard Hill
        Surveyor: Joseph John Williams
        Deed: 1760

        MARS ID =
        Williams, Wilson. Halifax Co.
        CLASS: State Agency Records 1760
        Land Entry: 1760 February 23. 300 acres
        Descriptive references for land: John Pope, Caleb Etheridge, Aaron
        Etheridge, Fishing Creek
        Warrant: 1760 February 23. 300 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: John Pope, Caleb Etheridge, Aaron
        Ehteridge, Fishing Creek
        Plat: 1760 August 8. 94 acres.
        Descriptive references for land: Thomas Thrower, James Evans, Aaron
        Etheridge, John Rope, Fishing Creek, Caleb Etheridge
        Chain carriers: Thomas Thrower, William Pope
        Surveyor: Joseph John Williams
        Deed: 1760 August 8
        Land entries; Warrants; Plats; Deeds
        REMARKS: For deed see
      4. Title: Abstracts of Deeds, Halifax County, North Carolina
        Publication: GoldenWest Marketing Genealogy,Temple City, CA 91780-2112(800-445-8925,
        Page: 1758-1771, Volume I, Deed Book 9:
        Note: #910 -(91) JAMES EVANS planter of Halifax Co. to THOMAS HILL of same. 2 June 1764. 20 pounds Virginia money. 222 acres, joining POLLOCK, RICHD. LEWIS, ETHERIDGE, THOMAS THROWER.
        Wit: THOS. HILL JR. ELIZABETH HILL, WILL WILLIAMS. Oct. Ct. 1764. CC: Jos. Montfort

        #1154-(424) JAMES EVANS and ELINER his wife of Halifax Co. to JOHN BRADFORD of same. 26 Jan 1766. 25 pounds proclamation money. 100 acres which had been patented by THOMAS BRYAN 4 Mar 1728, joining JOHN BRADFORD, THOS. HILL, WALTER PITTS, THEOPHILUS GOODWIN.
        Wit: WILLIAM MOORE, GEORGE KICKLEY, JOHN BRADFORD. 27 Jan 1767. A.J.: Montford Eelbeck
      5. Title: Other--
        Page: STATE CENSUS of NORTH CAROLINA 1784-1787 (by A.K.Register)
        Note: Page 69 Halifax County, District 15, taken by Thomas Pace, 10th Feby. 1786.
        ELENDER EVENS was listed as head of household.
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