Name: King of Iraq Ghazi
Birth: 21 MAR 1912 in MECCA, SAUDI ARABIA
Death: 4 APR 1939 in BAGHDAD, IRAQ
Cause of Death (Facts Pg) 1939 CAR ACCIDENT
Burial: BAGHDAD, IRAQ
Reference Number: 10110
Iraq: Modern History of Iraq
1912 - The Turkish Petroleum Company is formed with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell
1914 - The Turkish Petroleum Company is given a concession to prospect for oil
by Baghdad and Mosul; the same year the company merges with the Anglo Persian
Oil Company. The British government buys up 51% of the shares of the Anglo
Persian Oil Company. When the war breaks out British Indian troops invade.
1916 - The Tribal Criminal and Civil Disputes Regulations is introduced by the
British. The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement gives the province of Mosul to France.
1917 - In March British troops capture Baghdad.
1918 - Britian takes control of the province of Mosul four days after the
October 1918 Armistice Agreement.
1919 - The French give up their claim to the province of Mosul in exchange for
the 25% share in the Turkish Petroleum Company that had been confinscated from
the Deutsche Bank.
In the summer and autumn there are uprisings by the Kurds, demanding
an independant Kurdish state.
1920 - In April Iraq is given as a mandated territory to Britian. When the news
reaches Iraq in July the people start a revolt against the British that lasts
until October when the British army regained control.
- Sir Percy Cox comes to Iraq to replace Sir Arnold Wilson as the British
- The Iraq Army is created.
1921 - In March the Cairo Conference decides to install Faisal as king. He
arrives in Iraq in June, and is crowned on August 23.
1922 - Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
- Sir Percy Cox, the British High Commissioner in Iraq draws out the
new borders between Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
1924 - Iraq's Constituent Assembly ratifies the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
1926 - Another Anglo-Iraqi Treaty is signed. Also the Turky-Iraqi Treaty of
July, giving Turkey 10% of Iraq's oil royalties for 25 years, in exchange for
making the Mosul oil fields as a part of Iraq.
1927 - Oil is found near Kirkuk, but production is slow. Another Anglo-Iraqi
Treaty is signed, this one relaxing British intervention while maintaining
control on British interests.
1928 - Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Persian, CFP, Exxon, Mobil, Atlantic
Richfield, Gulf Oil Corporation, Standard Oil of Indiana [ Amoco ], and
Participations and Explorations Corp., establish a joint venture called
the Near East Development Company; The Near East Development
Company signs "Red Lines Agreement" binding participating companies
to cooperate with Turkish Petroleum Company in any ventures in Turkey,
the Levant, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula (Atlantic, Gulf, and Standard
eventually sell their shares to other participants).
1929 - Iraq's first trade union, the Ashab al-Sana`a (Artisans' Association) is
founded by Muhammad Salih al-Qazzaz. The Turkish Petroleum Company
changes name to Iraq Petroleum Company.
1930 - A drop in world grain prices force Iraq, which is up till now still
relying on grain as it's main export, to seek advances on royalties from the oil
company. Another Anglo-Iraqi treaty.
1931 - Widespread strikes and demonstrations in protest of the Anglo-Iraqi
treaty and new taxes to small merchants.
1932 - Iraq joins the League of Nations as an independant state with King Faisal
I as the leader of the country. During the next years, up until 1941, Iraq is
ruled by at least 12 cabinets. Mosul Petroleum Company formed to hold
northern portion of Iraq Petroleum Company's.
1933 - King Faisal I dies and is succeeded by his twenty-one year old son Ghazi.
The Iraqi army commits atrocities against some 3,000 people in northern Iraq.
1934 - A ban on trade unions is implaced after a city-wide boycott of the
British-owned Baghdad Electric Light and Power Company forces a slight lowering
of electricty prices.
Iraqi Communist Party founded.
1935 - National Service Law is installed..
1936 - The first military coup d'etat. During the next years, until 1941, there
are six more coups.
1937 - April 28, Saddam Hussein is born and left with his maternal uncle,
Khairallah Talfah in the town of Tikrit.
An agreement is signed on July 4th between Iraq and Iran over the
1938 - By this time the Iraq Petroleum Company (TPC) has a monopoly on the oil
industry in Iraq. Basrah Petroleum Company formed to hold southern portion of
Iraq Petroleum Company.
King Ghazi leads a media campaign to encourage the Kuwaiti people to
overthrow their government and join Iraq.
1939 - King Ghazi dies in a car accident and is succeeded by Abd al-Ilah, the
regent for Ghazi's four year old son Faisal II. Iraq Petroleum Company
establishes Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company Ltd. (ADPC) to hold Abu
1941 - In April, in accordance to a 1930 treaty Iraq permits the British to move
their troops into Iraq. Iraq appeals for German support and attacks the British
air base at Habbaniya. The Iraqi army is beaten and Prime Minister Rashid Ali
flees the country. Britian resumes military control. The monarchy is restored.
Saddam Hussein's uncle Khairallah is jailed and Saddam moves to live
with his mother and step-father, who beats him.
1943 - The Women's League Against Fascism is created.
Iraq declares war on the Axis powers.
1944 - About 16 trade unions are permitted to be licensed within the next two
years. Twelve of them are run by the Iraqi Communist Party.
1946 - Some new political parties are allowed.
Railway workers go on strike for higher wages. Ten oilworkers are
killed by the police on the tenth day of a oilworker's strike.
1947 - Ten year old Saddam Hussein moves back to live with his uncle again and
begins attending school.
In May the Union of Port Employees at Basra port goes on strike.
Also in May, the Kurdish resistence leader Barzani flee to the Soviet Union.
Then in June Fahd, the leader of the Iraqi Communist Party, is sentenced to
death by the Supreme Court. International pressure forces the court to change
the sentence to life imprisonment instead.
The monarchy clamps down against women's rights activists, with many
arrested, meetings banned and literacy schools closed.
1948 - On January 5th a peaceful demonstration of law students are beaten by the
police, the school is closed, and 39 students arrested. The next day students at
all other colleges go on strike, and by January 8th the law school is reopened
and arrested students released. Between January 8 - 15 the Portsmouth Treaty was
being negotiated in Britian - an attempt to renew the 1930 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
College students organize a three day strike and demonstrations starting January
16th. On the 20th a mass march is fired upon and some of the protesters are
killed. The faculties of Pharmacy and Medince, as well as the physicians at the
hospital resign on the 21, in protest because one of their students was amoung
the dead. That night the Regent promised that the treaty (already signed) would
not be ratified. On the 23th huge crowds marched through Baghdad shouting "Long
Live the Republic!" On the 26th two of the government officials who had been in
London return, hoping to keep the treaty going, and announce that it will be
better explained. On the 27th 300 - 400 people are shot in the streets. The
government leader flees, and by February 4th a new government formally rejects
the Portsmouth Treaty
In April striking oilworkers are arrested during their attempted march
Railway workers go on strike three times this year.
1952 - The Iraqi branch of the Ba'th political party recieves official
The League for the Defense of Women's Rights is created.
1953 - Faisal II comes of age, but his uncle is reluctant to release power.
1954 - Prince Regent Abd al-Illah calls for the parlimentary elections while
Faisal II is abroad. The National Front (communists, national democrats and
Istiqlal) wins eleven of 135 seats. Nuri al Sa'id becomes Prime Minister and
disolves the parliment and has many activists arrested. Opposition parties
boycott the re-election so 122 of the 135 seats are uncontested.
1955 - Saddam Hussein graduates primary school and enrolls in high school.
Iraq joins Britian, Turkey, Iran and Palestine in forming the Baghdad
Pact. The Egyptian President signs a deal with the Soviet Union.
At this time the Iraqi Ba'th party had less than 300 members.
1956 - Egypt Nationalizes the Suez Canal. There is rioting in Baghdad as a
reaction to the government's passivity during the Suez Crisis.
1957 - Twenty year old Saddam Hussein joins the Ba'th Party. His first
assignment is to incite his schoolmates into anti-government activities.
1958 - In February the United Arab Republic (UAR) is formed between Syria and
Egypt. On July 14 the Hashemite monarchy (of Iraq) is overthrown in a bloody
coup headed by General Abd al-Karim Qassem. While Qassem does not want to join
the UAR, his second in command, Colonel Abd al-Salem Aref promises Egyptian
leader Nasser that Iraq will join and Qassem will be removed from power. Qassem
finds out and violence against nationalists erupts.
Saddam is implicated in and jailed for the murder of a government
official of the town of Tikrit. He is released from jail six months later.
1959 - a group of young Ba'th activists (including Saddam Hussein) ambush
Qassem's car and shoot him. Qassem does not die. Saddam flees to Syria and joins
the Ba'th party there.
Dr Naziha Dulaimi, the President of the League for Defense of
Women's Rights, becomes the first women cabinet minister in the whole of the
1960 - After staying three months in Damascus, Saddam goes to Cairo and joins
the Egyptian Branch of the Ba'th Party.
1961 - 24 year old Saddam Hussein graduates from high school in Cairo.
Iraqi leader Qassem attempts to annex the newly independant Kuwait, but
is prevented by the British. (The Egyptian president also, sided with the
1963 - The Ba'th Party in Iraq overthrows Qassem (executing him) and seizes
power. Communist supporters of Qassem battle the army in the streets for several
days before giving up. Thousands of leftists and communists were arrested and
tortured by the Ba'th Party. Women's rights groups are shut down and forbidden.
Fighting between extreemists in the Ba'th Party lead to the expelling of
both groups from the party. The Ba'th National Command steps in to help with the
lack of leadership, but then the President Abd al-Salam Aref turns away from the
Saddam returns to Iraq, and shortly after marries his cousin, Sajidah
1964 - Saddam's first son, Udai, is born.
The Ba'th party starts plotting a coup d'etat against President Aref, so
the president purges the party.
Saddam Hussein is told by the National Command to leave Iraq and flee to
the Syrian capital, but he doesn't. In mid-October Saddam is arrested.
1965 - While still in jail Saddam Hussein is elected to the Iraqi Ba'th Party's
highest decision-making body, the Regional Command.
1966 - With the help of some friends Saddam Hussien escapes from prison.
On February 23 a military coup gives power in Damascus (Syria) to a
radical Marxist faction.
In April Iraqi President Aref dies in a helicopter crash. His brother
In December a dispute breaks out between Syria and the Iraqi Petroleum
1967 - Arabs are defeated in the Seven Day War. Strikes and demonstrations are
encouraged by the Ba'th party to help rally the people against the government.
1968 - In February the Iraqi Ba'th party holds establishes its own pan-Arab
National Command, seperate from the Ba'th party in Syria.
In July the Ba'th party takes over the government in a military coup,
replacing President Aref with President Bakr. The new government launches a wave
of purges. In September Saddam starts his habit of exposing "plots".
Guerrilla fighters attack oil installations in Kirkuk. The military
attacks civilians in Kurdistan.
1969 - Iran breaks the 1937 Treaty about navigation rules on the Shatt al-Arab.
Baghdad asked Kuwait to allow Iraqi forces to guard the coastline from Iranian
Saddam Hussien enters secret negociations with Mullah Mustafa
al-Barzani, a Kurdish resistence leader.
1970 - On March 11 Saddam Hussein announces the "victory" of the March
Manifesto, an agreement with the Kurdish resistence leader which is supposed to
give Kurds autonomic rule in areas where Kurds were the majority... the plan was
to be implimented over four years.
In September the tension between the Jordan and Palestinians is highest.
The Jordanian army begins slaughtering Palestinians. The Palestinians call to
Iraq for help, and Iraq sends troups who reportedly do nothing.
1971 - In September around 40,000 Shi'ite Kurds are expelled to Iran, likely so
that when a census is done the Kurds will not have the majority in many areas.
1972 - Even more Kurds are forced into Iran and out of Iraq. Barzani, the leader
of the Kurdish resistence movement is promised some $16 million from the US CIA
over a three year period.
Saddam makes an agreement with the Soviet Union.
On June 1st the Ba'th party nationalizes the oil industry in Iraq.
1973 - In March two Iraqi armoured units move to the Samitha border post inside
Kuwait in another attempt to annex Kuwait to Iraq. Saudi forces move to protect
Kuwait and Iran voices its disapproval. Iraqi forces retreat.
A plot lead by Nadhim Kazzar, the Head of the Security Services, to
overthrow the government is exposed.
The Yom Kippur War breaks out in October, and Iraq sends an armored
division to the Syrian front.
1974 - On March 11 the Autonomy Law is passed and pro-Kurdish ministers leave
the cabinet. Between March 1974 and March 1975 over 60,000 people died in
fighting between the government and the Kurds.
Saddam Hussein heads a three-man committee for the purpose of
developping chemical and biological weapons. During the next three years over
4,000 researchers are recruited for the project.
1975 - In January the Iranian army moves two regiments into Iraq to fight
alongside the Kurds. On March 6th the Algiers Agreement is signed between Iraq
and Iran, with Iraq announcing its claim on Khuzistan and changing the river
boundaries on the Shatt al-Arab.
Harrasment of communists by the government starts.
1976 - President Bakr confers upon Saddam Hussein the rank of General. Saddam
purchases the Osiraq research reactor from France, renaming it Tammur. The
reactor was schedualed to become operational at the end of 1981.
1977 - In February demonstrations led by Shi'ite clergymen against the
government erupt into violence.
Colonel Adnan Khairallah, a cousin of Saddam Hussein and the son-in-law of
President Bakr is appointed Minister of Defense (a position that until then was
held by the Presidency).
During the summer Iraq signs its first arms deal with France for the
purchase of Mirage-F1 fighters.
1978 - In March the Iraqi government takes control over Shi'ite revenues.
21 communist prisoners are executed in May, and persecution of
Adnan, the Minister of Defense, purges the military with some 60
military personnel executed. In July a law is passed making it a crime
punishable by death for a member of the armed forces to be involved in
non-Ba'thist political activity.
1979 - In April, the core of the Osiraq research reactor is blown up before it
can be shipped to Iraq. By July Iraq's first chemical weapons plant is
In June revolutionaries urge the Shi'ite population to overthrow the "Saddamite
regime". The Shi'ite unrest grows and is encouraged by the Iranians.
Shortly after a publicity campaign, and on the eleventh anniversary of
the July Revolution, Saddam Hussein forces President Bakr into "retirement due
to health problems" and takes over as president. Within a few weeks he does
another major purge of the party.
By this year only about 63% of Iraq's weapons were coming from the
Soviet Union, whereas five years earlier 95% was. By summer time the Iraqi
Communist Party is virtually gone. When in December the Soviets invade
Afghanistan the Iraqi government speaks out against it.
1980 - In February Hussein announces the Eight-Point National Charter.
On June 20th the first elections are held for the newly reinstated (but
powerless) National Assembly.
In September 22, the Iraqi airforce begins bombing the airfields in
Iran. The next day Iraq's ground forces move in. On September 30 an attack
against Iraq's nuclear research reactor fails.
1981 - On June 7th Iraq's nuclear research reactor was destroyed by an Isreali
President Saddam arranges to have the philosophical writings of his uncle
Khairallah published in a treatise titled "Three Whom God Should Not Have
Created: Persians, Jews and Flies."
In September the Iraqi armed forces pull back East of the Karun river.
1982 - Iranian troups invade Iraq in July. The Iraqi Minister of Health is
1983 - Some 8000 members of Barzani's Kurdish resistence movement are
imprisioned. The government permits the privatization of agriculture.
1984 - Diplomatic relations are restored between the US and Iraq.
1985 - the 8000 imprisoned members of Barzani's Kurdish resistence are executed
as the government tries to end the resistence movement.
1986 - World oil prices collapse. Iranian victories cause hostility between the
military and government of Iraq.
1987 - Chemical weapons are used by Saddam against Kurdish villages in
Kurdistan, as a means of trying to discourage the Kurdish from supporting the
1988 - Turkish refuges accuse the Iraqis of using poison gas against the Kurds
in northern Iraq. The Iran-Iraq war ends, and an arc de triomphe is built almost
Saddam's oldest son, Udai, is exciled to Switzerland for killing
his father's food taster.
1989 - Saddam's cousin, Adnan Khairallah Talfah, the Minister of Defense and
Deputy Prime Minister dies in a "mysterious" helicopter crash.
1990 - President Saddam has seventeen of his uncle's companies closed and their
executives arrested. Saddam's son Udai is brought back to Baghdad and returned
to his government positions.
In April five US senators visit Iraq, assuring Saddam Hussein that
the American people do not have a problem with what he has done, but only the
"haughty and pampered press" does.
On July 21 30,000 Iraqi troops begin moving to the border of Kuwait.
On July 25, Ms. April Glaspie, the US Ambassador to Baghdad assures Saddam that
Washington supports him in his insistence with Kuwait. Three days later a
personal message is sent from President Bush assuring Saddam that although "the
use of force or threat of using force is unacceptable" he is still very willing
to deal with Iraq.
On August 2, Iraqi troops invade Kuwait. On August 6, the UN
Security Council passed Resolution 661 calling for a worldwide economic sanction
and arms embargo on Iraq. On August 8, the Revolutionay Command Council
announces the merger of Iraq and Kuwait. On August 9th Saddam announces that no
foreigners are allowed to leave Iraq and Kuwait. On August 14, Iraq agrees to
the Iranian's conditions for peace with them, and begins the exchange of
prisoners of war. On August 25 Austrian President Kurt Waldheim arrives in
Baghdad, the first of a series of politicians and diplomats, to plead for the
release of foreign hostages (after the press conference he is allowed to leave
with all 140 Austrians that were being held in Iraq and Kuwait). On August 28,
Kuwait is officially made the nineteenth province of Iraq. The same day
permission is given for all foreign women and children to be leave Iraq and
November 29, 1000 Soviet workers are allowed to leave Iraq in a
desperate attempt to gain Soviet support before that days convocation of the UN
Security Council. The Council passes Resolution 678, calling for Iraq to
withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January or face the use of military force. Then on
November 30, American President Bush offers direct talks between the US and
In December the Frence Defense Minister suggests that the borders of
Kuwait could be possibly redrawn as a comprimize with Iraq. On December 5 the US
Ambassador to the United Nations implies that the US might consider such an
idea. On December 6 Saddam releases the rest of the foreign hostages. On
December 12 the Iraqi Minister of Defense, General Abd al-Jabbar Khalil Shanshal
1991 - On January 12 the US Congress gives authorization for President Bush to
use military force against Iraq. Western diplomats flee from Baghdad, and
thousands of peace activists protest in Europe and America. The January 15th
deadline passes and twenty-six hours later US-led allied planes bomb Iraq. On
the 18th a missile attack on Isreal commences in an attempt to provoke
retaliation and a premature ground assult. On January 22 Iraq sets fire to
several Kuwaiti oil installations.
Father: Faisal I, King of Iraq\Syria b: 1885 in AL-TAAEF, SAUDI ARABIA
Aliyah bint Ali , Queen of Iraq b: 1911 in MECCA
- Feisal II, King of Iraq b: 2 MAY 1935 in BAGHDAD, IRAQ