J.H. Garner Genealogy Database

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  • ID: I120954
  • Name: António PRIOR OF CRATO 1 2 3 4
  • Name: António DE PORTUGAL 2
  • Name: António 'Prior do Crato' KING OF PORTUGAL 3 2
  • Sex: M
  • Change Date: 27 FEB 2012
  • Birth: 17 JAN 1531 in Palace of Almeirim, Lisbon, Portugal 5 6 7
  • Death: 26 AUG 1595 in Paris, France 8
  • Event: Note 1580
  • Note:
    While António was a prisoner in Morocco, his uncle Henry, the cardinal archbishop of Évora and only surviving brother of King John III of Portugal (1521–1557), was proclaimed the new monarch. The cardinal was old and the last legitimate male representative of the royal line. In January 1580, when the Portuguese Cortes were assembled in Almeirim (where the rightful heir of the Portuguese throne was decided), old Cardinal-King Henry died without having designated a successor. The regency of the kingdom was assumed by a governing junta composed of five members. By this time, the Portuguese throne was contested by several claimants. Among these were Catherine, Duchess of Braganza; King Philip II of Spain; and António, the Prior of Crato. All three had problems: Catherine was a woman, Antonio was illegitimate, and Philip was a foreigner. Catherine was named the legitimate heir later, after her descendants obtained the throne in 1640 (through King John IV of Portugal). However, in 1580, she was but one of several possible heirs. According to the feudal custom of primogeniture, the oldest living son of the king was to be proclaimed the legitimate successor. Since the line of King John III, son of King Manuel I, was extinguished on the death of King Sebastião in Morocco, Manuel's next son, Prince Luis, was the legitimate heir. Since he had died, his only son, António, should have become the new king. Although his birth was illegitimate, precedent had been set in 1385 with the proclamation of John, son of Pedro I, as king. John I was also of illegitimate birth. But Antonio's enemies seized on his illegitimacy to put forward their own candidates.
    António, relying upon popular hostility to a Spanish ruler (even if Philip's mother was Portuguese), presented himself as an alternative candidate to King Philip II. He endeavoured to prove that his father and mother were married after his birth, but no evidence of the marriage could be found (and whether such a marriage ever took place is still debated). António's claim was not supported by the nobles or gentry because many of them had been bribed, promised future benefits, or threatened with the loss of their privileges and estates. Most of António's partisans were drawn instead from the lower clergy, the peasantry, and artisans. Philip ensured the success of his claim to the Portuguese crown by using gold from the Americas to bribe the upper classes of Portugal; these aristocrats and rich believed that a personal union of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns would be highly profitable for Portugal (whose economy was then failing), which would maintain formal independence as well as autonomous administration in both Europe and its empire).
    9
  • Event: Accedence BET 19 JUL 1580 AND 25 AUG 1580
  • Note:
    On July 19, 1580, António was proclaimed King of Portugal in Santarém which was followed by popular acclamation in several locations of the country. However, he governed in Continental Portugal for only 20 days, culminating in his defeat in the Battle of Alcântara by the Spanish Habsburg armies led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba on August 25.
    After the above event, he attempted to rule Portugal from Terceira Island, in the Azores, where he established an opposition government that lasted until 1583, and where he even minted coin — a typical act of sovereignty and royalty. Because of that, many authors[clarification needed] consider him the last monarch of the House of Aviz (instead of Cardinal-King Henry) and the 18th King of Portugal.
    His government on Terceira Island was only recognized in the Azores. On the continent and in the Madeira Islands, power was exercised by Philip II, who was recognized as official king the following year by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar.
    9
  • Event: Note BET 1581 AND 1589
  • Note:
    In early 1581, he fled to France carrying with him the crown jewels, including many valuable diamonds. He was well received by Catherine de' Medici, who had a claim of her own to the Crown of Portugal. She looked upon him as a convenient instrument to be used against Philip II. By promising to cede the Portuguese colony of Brazil to her and the sale of some of his jewels, António secured support to fit out a fleet manned by Portuguese exiles and French and English adventurers.
    As the Habsburgs had not yet occupied the Azores, he sailed for them with a number of French adventurers under Philip Strozzi, a Florentine exile in the service of France, but was utterly defeated at sea by the Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz at the Battle of Ponta Delgada off São Miguel Island on July 25 and 26, 1582. He then returned to France and lived for a time in Rueil near Paris. Fear of assassins, employed by Philip II to remove him, drove António from one refuge to another until he finally went to England.
    Queen Elizabeth I of England favoured him for much the same reasons as Catherine de' Medici did. In 1589, the year after the Spanish Armada, he accompanied an English expedition, under the command of Francis Drake and John Norreys, to the coast of Spain and Portugal. The force consisted partly of the queen's ships, and in part by privateers who joined in search of booty. António, with all the credulity of an exile, believed that his presence would provoke a general rising against Philip II. However, none took place and the expedition was a costly failure.
    9
  • Event: Note
  • Note: António was educated in Coimbra, and he was placed in the Order of St. John. He received the wealthy priory of Crato as an benefice 9
  • Event: Note 1571
  • Note: In 1571, he was named governor of the Portuguese fortification at Tangiers in Morocco. 9
  • Event: Note 1578
  • Note: Little is known of his life until 1578. In that year, he accompanied King Sebastian of Portugal (1557–1578) in his invasion of Morocco, and he was taken prisoner by the Moors at the Battle of Ksar El Kebir, the same battle where the young king was slain. António is said to have secured his release on easy terms by concocting a fiction. He was asked the meaning of the cross of St. John that he wore on his doublet, and he replied that it was the sign of a small benefice which he held from the Pope, something he would lose if he were not back in Portugal by 1 January 1579. His captor, believing him to be a poor man, allowed his release upon payment of a small ransom. 9



    Father: Luiz DUQUE DE BEJA b: 03 MAR 1506 in Abrantes, Santarém District, Portugal
    Mother: Violante 'la Pelicana' GOMEZ b: ABT 1513

    Marriage 1 Ana BARBOSA b: ABT 1543
    • Event: Partner
    • Note: Not married 8 10 11
    Children
    1. Has No Children Filipa DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1560
    2. Has No Children Luisa DE PORTUGAL b: ABT 1562
    3. Has No Children Afonso DE PORTUGAL b: ABT 1566
    4. Has Children Emanuel DE PORTUGAL b: 1568 in Tangiers, Morocco
    5. Has No Children Cristóvão DE PORTUGAL b: APR 1573 in Tangiers, Morocco
    6. Has No Children Pedro DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1575
    7. Has No Children Diniz DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1576
    8. Has No Children Violante DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1577
    9. Has No Children Antonia DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1578
    10. Has No Children João DE PORTUGAL b: EST 1579

    Sources:
    1. Title: Miscellaneous
      Abbrev: Miscellaneous
      Page: De Afstammelingen van Juliana van Stolberg tot aan het jaar van de vrede van Munster, Zaltbommel, 1968, Dek, Dr. A. W. E., Reference: page 90
    2. Title: University of Hull Royal Database (England), Url: http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/cssbct/genealogy/royal/
      Abbrev: University of Hull Royal DB
      Author: bct@tardis.ed.ac.uk, Compiler: Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science
      Publication: University of Hull, Hull, UK HU6 7RX, 1994, 1995, 1996
      Note:
      Usually reliable but sometimes includes hypothetical lines, mythological figures, etc.
      Page: de Portugal, Antonio, King of Portugal
    3. Title: Leo van de Pas: Leo's Genealogics Website, Address: Canberra, Australia, Url: http://www.genealogics.org/index.php
      Abbrev: Leo van de Pas
      Author: leovdpas@netspeed.com.au, Compiler: Leo van de Pas
      Note:
      A contributor to soc.genealogy.medieval
      Page: Antonio 'Prior do Crato' King of Portugal
    4. Title: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten
      Abbrev: Europäische Stammtafeln
      Author: Prince Wilhelm Karl von Isenburg
      Publication: Verlag von J.A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1953, 1975
      Repository:
        Name: selected charts in possession of J.H. Garner

      Page: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: page 54
    5. Title: University of Hull Royal Database (England), Url: http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/cssbct/genealogy/royal/
      Abbrev: University of Hull Royal DB
      Author: bct@tardis.ed.ac.uk, Compiler: Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science
      Publication: University of Hull, Hull, UK HU6 7RX, 1994, 1995, 1996
      Note:
      Usually reliable but sometimes includes hypothetical lines, mythological figures, etc.
      Page: b 1531 Lisbon
    6. Title: Leo van de Pas: Leo's Genealogics Website, Address: Canberra, Australia, Url: http://www.genealogics.org/index.php
      Abbrev: Leo van de Pas
      Author: leovdpas@netspeed.com.au, Compiler: Leo van de Pas
      Note:
      A contributor to soc.genealogy.medieval
      Page: b Palace of Almeirim
    7. Title: Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia, Url: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
      Abbrev: Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia
      Page: born in Lisbon
    8. Title: University of Hull Royal Database (England), Url: http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/cssbct/genealogy/royal/
      Abbrev: University of Hull Royal DB
      Author: bct@tardis.ed.ac.uk, Compiler: Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science
      Publication: University of Hull, Hull, UK HU6 7RX, 1994, 1995, 1996
      Note:
      Usually reliable but sometimes includes hypothetical lines, mythological figures, etc.
    9. Title: Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia, Url: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
      Abbrev: Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia
    10. Title: Leo van de Pas: Leo's Genealogics Website, Address: Canberra, Australia, Url: http://www.genealogics.org/index.php
      Abbrev: Leo van de Pas
      Author: leovdpas@netspeed.com.au, Compiler: Leo van de Pas
      Note:
      A contributor to soc.genealogy.medieval
    11. Title: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten
      Abbrev: Europäische Stammtafeln
      Author: Prince Wilhelm Karl von Isenburg
      Publication: Verlag von J.A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1953, 1975
      Repository:
        Name: selected charts in possession of J.H. Garner

      Page: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference:
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