Return to normal view

Opening Doors in Brick Walls

Entries: 109110    Updated: 2017-12-17 16:57:28 UTC (Sun)    Owner: Cathy Meder-Dempsey    Home Page: Opening Doors in Brick Walls  Note: You will leave RootsWeb

  • ID: I1237
  • Name: Johann Jacob RUPP
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: 8 MAR 1723 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
  • _APPLIES_TO: DATE_AND_PLACE 1
  • Baptism: 9 MAR 1723 Steinseltz, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France 1
  • Death: AFT 1792 in Maryland
  • _TAG: Proven Ancestors
  • _UID: 8263DFD661256041B5FB7887A01FAE1DFA77
  • CONF: 21 APR 1737 Steinseltz at the Protestant Reformed Church 2
  • Event: Land Purchase 1770 Pipe Creek Hundred, Baltimore County, Maryland
  • Event: Land Sale 5 JUN 1787 Pipe Creek Hundred, Baltimore County, Maryland
  • Note:
    ATTENTION: NEW INFORMATION HAS BEEN DISCOVERED
    As of June 2013 new records found in the Bas-Rhin Archives show the narrative "From Oberhoffen to America" by Theron A. Rupe (an introduction to Louise Akers' book The Family Rub, Rup, Rupe, Roop, Roope) is not correct in all aspects. (see Word doc with comments in scrapbook)

    The Johann Jacob Rupp Family History Spans Two Continents

    Johann Jacob RUPP of Oberhoffen, Northern Alsace, present-day France

    Rupe/Roop/Ruppe/Rupp Migration in the Years 1752-1820

    "I found the ship!"

    How to Find Your 18th Century Immigrant's Signature

    Rhineharts Folly in Pipe Creek Hundred, Baltimore County, Maryland

    Where I Found the Land Records of my RUPE Ancestors in Maryland

    Three Fantastic Finds Made While Researching 1752 Immigrant Johann Jacob Rupp

    Proof of Patriotic Service During the Revolutionary War for Jacob RUPE

    9 March 1722/1723
    Christening sponsors: Johann Peter Rupp, s/o Hans Georg Rupp; Johann Jacob, s/o Peter Thomas [--?--]; Anna Juliana, d/o Johann Philipp Erlmann
    [Source: Photocopy of page from church book "Kirchen Protokoll der Franz. Reformierten Gemeinden zu Steinseltz und Oberhofen der Jahr 1685 bis in den April 1787"]

    Map of the waterways (for example, Rhine) which were the primary mode of travel from the emigrants' villages to Rotterdam in the northeast. courtesy of http://www.progenealogists.com/images/1700GerEm.jpg (in file)

    1752
    "A List of German Immigrants to the American Colonies from Zweibruecken in the Palatinate 1750-1771", Edited by Dr. Friedrich Krebs, Archivist Speyer-am-Rhein, Germany (With An Introduction By Dr. Don Yoder" appears in the book, "Pennsylvania German Immigrants, 1709-1786 - Lists Consolidated from Yearbooks of The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society)", edited by Don Yoder and published by the Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., Baltimore, MD 1984. This list known as the Krebs List was first published in Germany as "Eine Liste deutscher Auswanderer nach den amerikanischen Kolonien aus Zweibrucken in der Pfalz 1750-1771", edited by Dr. Friedrich Krebs, in "Familie und Volk, Volume 1, Number 1 (January-February 1952), and amongst the 152 names provides the following:
    List of Emigrants From Zweibruecken 1750-1771
    Cleeburg and Catharinenburg
    1752 - FRANZ SPECK with wife and three children, JOHANNES DOPPERT with wife and one child, all of Ingelsheim (Ingolsheim), APOLLONIA ZIMMERMANN, of Rott, widow of the late Georg Bronner, with four children, MICHEL HARR of Rott with wife and one child, MARTIN WITTERICH of Hunspach, JACOB DIERY with wife and five children, PHILIPS DIERY with wife and three children, BALTHASAR MUELLER with wife and three children, JACOB RUBB with wife and three children, all of Oberhoffen (Oberhofen), JACOB KERN'S old widow of Rott, HENRICH KERN with wife and three children, JACOB KERN with wife and five children, all of Rott, JOHN SEYLER of Birlenbach with wife and five children, BENJAMIN HAGELBERGER with wife and five children, ANNA ELISABETHA BARTHEL with one child, ANNA MARIA SCHMITT and BARBARA HERRMANN, all four of Rott, all seventeen families leave for America.
    None of the families appeared in Daniel Isreal Rupp's book, "A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names Of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776".
    Of the above families, Annette Kunsel Burgert, only located and identified Michael Harr, the Widow Kern, Henrich Kern, Jacob Rubb, Jacob Seyler and Martin Wuterich for her book, "18th Century Emigrants from the Northern Alsace to America", Picton Press, Camden, Maine, 1992.
    Volume II of "The Alsace Emigration Book", by Corneilia Schrader-Muggenthaller lists all of the above families, but simply indicates that they emigrated to America on 01/01/1752. With the exception of your Rubb, the source information is indicated to be the Zweibruecken List. For your Rubb, the source is listed as "Bulletin des Cercle genealogique du Bas Rhin" in the Archive Department Strassbourg.
    The book, "Auswanderungen aus Rheinpfalz und Saarland im 18.Jahrhundert", by Werner Hacker, published by Konrad Theiss Verlage, Stuttgart, Germany, 1987 lists all of the above families with the source listed as SP X 55 Nr. 12:237. These apparently are Zweibruecken Manumissionsprotokolle (Manumission Registers.....manumissions being requests for permission to leave the Duchy of Zweibruecken) which are stored at the German Archives at Speyer-am-Rhine.
    [Source: Rebel L. Krekow (rkreklow@inetworld.net) email dated May 8, 2001]
    Note: Copy of German text in scrapbook!

    20 October 1752
    Jacob and his family arrived in Philadelphia on October 20, 1752 on the ship "Duke of Wirtenburg" that sailed from Rotterdam and Cowes under Captain Daniel Montpelier. Also on the ship were Hans George Gottle, Christian Stahl and Christoff Fridrich Biller whose names can be found in later years in connection with Jacob Rupp. The ship list transcription found on http://www.genesearch.com/genealogy-records/penngermanpioneers/dukeofwirtenburg1752.html : accessed 15 February 2016. The ship list in print in the book Pennsylvania-German Society, pgs. 497-499. (both in file)

    About 1753
    Birth of daughter Anna Maria

    About 1755
    Birth of son Georg (George)

    Easter 1759
    In the church records of Evangelical Reformed Church in Frederick, Maryland, Jacob Rupp is on the list of communicants for Easter 1759 along with Christian Biller and Christoph Stoll.
    [Source: Dennis Welty, GenForum posting dated September 11, 2001, his source: "Maryland German Church Records, Volume 5 (1991), Evangelical Reformed Church, Frederick, Frederick County, 1746-1789"]

    About 1759
    Birth of daughter Barbara

    About 1762
    Birth of son Johann (John)

    About 1765
    Birth of son Heinrich (Henry)

    1768
    "In 1768, as Joppa's commercial influence faded the influence of the port of Baltimore Town, now known as Baltimore, resulted in it being named the county seat."
    [Source: Neal A. Brooks and Eric G. Rockel; A Brief History of Baltimore County; Friends of the Towson Library, Inc. Towson, Maryland. 1979. Copyright © Baltimore County Public Library; accessed 19 July 2013 online http://registers.maryland.gov/main/region/baltimoreco/bco-history.html]

    By 1768 it had become apparent that the once thriving port of Joppa on the Gunpowder River was no longer capable of handling the commercial shipping for which the port facilities of the rapidly growing port of Baltimore Town on the Patapsco River were needed. Largely as a result of this shift, it was obvious to most people that Baltimore was a far more appropriate seat for the county government. The Assembly, however, with great fairness, chose to made this determination on the basis of a popular referendum, and ordered that petitions, both pro and con the change, be circulated throughout the county to be signed by all adult males over 18 -- virtually a census of adult county residents in 1768...(pg. 393)
    [Source: Richard B. Miller. 1985. "Index to the Signers of the 1768 Joppa Petitions of Baltimore County, Maryland." Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin 26(4): 393-428 (Broderbund CD-208)]

    Michael Rub and Jacob Rub (five names down on list) along with Christian Daker and Andres Welti are signers for the removal of the county seat to Baltimore town.
    [Source: Dennis Welty, GenForum posting dated September 11, 2001, his source: "Inhabitants of Baltimore County 1763-1774" by Henry C. Peden Jr.]

    1768
    By an Act of Assembly in 1768 the inhabitants of Baltimore, including Michael Rub and Jacob Rub, signed a petition to transfer the county seat from Joppa to "Baltimore Town". On pg. 558 (see source citation below) Michael and Jacob Rub both left their mark. Another man signed and his signature was transcribed as Jacob Rul(?). It is possible that this is Jacob Sr. and both of his sons, Jacob Jr. and Michael, signed by leaving their mark.
    Preface, publication page, pgs. 520-524 and 552-558 (in file)
    [Source: Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly May 9, 1766 to June 22, 1768, Volume 61, accessed on the Maryland State Archives site 18 July 2013. Note: The sixty-first volume of the Archives of Maryland series was published in 1944, with J. Hall Pleasants as the editor, under the direction of the Maryland Historical Society. This volume covers the Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly from May 9, 1766 to June 22, 1768. The appendix contains contemporary manuscript documents.]
    http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc2900/sc2908/000001/000061/pdf/am61--557.pdf
    http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc2900/sc2908/000001/000061/pdf/am61--558.pdf
    http://aomol.msa.maryland.gov/000001/000061/html/

    29 October 1768
    Jacob and his wife Barbara were the sponsors at the christening of Barbara Weinmann, d/o Bernhardt and Anna Maria Weinmann born 15 Oct 1768.

    1770
    Johann Jacob bought 115 acres of land in Baltimore County in 1770 with Pennsylvania money. The tract was called Rhineharts Folly.

    12 April 1771
    Jacob Rupp, a German Protestant, was naturalized on 12 April 1771 in Baltimore, Maryland.
    [Source: Annette Kunselman Burgert's book "Eighteenth Century Emigrants from Northern Alsace to America"]

    2 August 1772
    Barbara Rupp was one of the sponsors at the christening of Christian Weinmann. Christian, s/o Bernhardt and Anna Maria Weinmann, born 30 Jun 1772, christened 2 August 1772, sponsors: Christian Weinmann and Barbara Rupp

    1773
    Pipe Creek Hundred list of taxables includes Jacob Rupe, Frederick Deker and Margaret Welty (widow of Andrew Welty).
    [Source: Dennis Welty, GenForum posting dated September 11, 200, his source: "Inhabitants of Baltimore County 1763-1774" by Henry C. Peden Jr.]
    ONLINE: found the scanned tax lists through this link: http://guide.mdsa.net/pages/series.aspx?id=c428
    http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/coagser/c400/c428/000000/000052/pdf/msa_c428-000052.pdf : accessed 19 February 2016

    1774
    Frederick Decker and Jacob Rupe were executors of the estate of Andrew Welty in 1774 who owned land near Manchester (now Carroll County) Maryland. In the administration accounts he is listed as Jacob Rupe.
    [Source: Dennis Welty, GenForum posting dated September 11, 2001.]

    Last Will and Testament of Andrew Welty (2 Nov 1772):
    Citation
    "Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999," images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-24090-18189-65?cc=1803986 : accessed 12 February 2016), Baltimore > Wills 1763-1784 vol 3 > image 126 of 318; Hall of Records, Annapolis.
    Citation
    "Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999," images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-24090-19472-62?cc=1803986 : accessed 12 February 2016), Baltimore > Wills 1763-1784 vol 3 > image 127 of 318; Hall of Records, Annapolis.

    Adminsitrative Bond (9 Dec 1772)
    Citation
    "Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999," images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-24257-76812-40?cc=1803986 : accessed 12 February 2016), Baltimore > Administration bonds 1769-1772 vol 4 > image 54 of 187; Hall of Records, Annapolis.

    Inventory of Andrew Welthy found with Jacob Rupe listed as one of the executors:
    Citation
    "Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999," images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-24259-28543-45?cc=1803986 : accessed 12 February 2016), Baltimore > Inventories 1772-1776 vol 11 > image 62 of 186; Hall of Records, Annapolis.
    Citation
    "Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999," images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1951-24259-28506-54?cc=1803986 : accessed 12 February 2016), Baltimore > Inventories 1772-1776 vol 11 > image 63 of 186; Hall of Records, Annapolis.

    5 May 1776
    Jacob and his wife Barbara were sponsors at the christening of Jacob Schauer, s/o Johannes and Anna Maria Schauer born 5 May 1776.

    1778 (sons of Jacob? Why didn't Jacob sign?)
    George Rupe, Jacob Rupe and Martin Ra(u)pe signed the Oath of Allegiance in 1778 in Baltimore County, Baltimore, Md.
    [Source: James M. Roop; Roop/Accola - Hubbard/Kirchner gedcom file; online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jmroop&id=I0572]

    1780
    Jacob and his wife Barbara were sponsors at the christening of a male child, son of Henrich and Anymarya Gottier was born in 1780.

    7 August 1780
    Jacob and his wife Barbara were sponsors at the christening of Jacob Born, s/o Johanes Born and mother (not given] born 4 July 1780.

    August 1781
    Jacob Rupp was one of the sponsors at the christening of George Weber, s/o Georg Weber and mother [not given--Barbara Rupp Weber?] born 10 Aug 1781. The other sponsor was Magdalena Göttier.

    1783 Tax List p. 162
    https://www.mdssar.org/sites/default/files/archives/1783taxlists/Baltimore_Co_MD1783OPT.pdf (in census file)
    http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/stagser/s1400/s1437/html/1437ba.html (index)
    http://www.sellers-sellars-sollars-zellars.net/bapipecreekhundred.htm

    6 July 1783
    Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion and Confession.

    8 August 1784
    Mar. Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion and Confession.

    November 1787
    Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion.

    1788
    He sold 15 acres to Johann Shaur in 1788 and the rest (100 acres) to his son Heinrich for a fraction of what he paid for it in 1770.

    4 October 1789
    Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion.

    1 April 1790
    Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion, Confession, and Confirmation.

    7 November 1790
    Barb. Rupp (husband Reformed) participated in Communion and Confession.

    22 May 1791
    Barb. Rupp participated in Communion and Confession.

    10 June 1792
    Barb. Rupp participated in Communion.

    1792
    Barbara Rupp was the sponsor at the christening of Barbara Rupp d/o Henrich Rupp and mother [not given; note: this would be Catharina Noll Rupp] born 29 Oct 1792 christened [not given; would be Barbara] sponsor: Barbara Rupp

    Checked (29 April 2013):
    Maryland, Register of Wills Books, 1629-1999
    Baltimore and Frederick County, Maryland (Carroll formed later)
    No will found for Jacob Rupe or Roop

    *****
    Also of interest:

    In 1732, Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of the Colony of Maryland, had issued an offer of 200 free acres to anyone who would settle "on any of the back Lands on the Northern and Western Boundarys of our said province," with the only cost being a rent of one cent per acre per year after the fourth year. [Dieter Cunz, The Maryland Germans. Princeton, 1948, pp. 5859.] Baltimores offer was designed to attract Germans from Pennsylvania, who had been moving through his land into the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. "The Germans were useful economically; they were already helping to turn Pennsylvania into a breadbasket," writes Weiser. [Weiser, The Brunners of Scheverstadt, p. 23.] "Moreover, they served as a natural barrier between the Indians, now driven inland, and the older coastal English settlements. Lord Baltimores scheme worked. German families from southeastern Pennsylvania (whose land prices were already beginning to climb) moved into the valley along the Monocacy and stayed."
    [Source: Excerpt from Schifferstadt: German Colonial Architecture in Frederick, Maryland; German-American Heritage Society of Greater Washington, D.C., Inc.; online http://www.geocities.com/garygrassl@verizon.net/schifferstadt.html]

    *****

    Further reading material:

    German Immigration in Maryland in the Colonial Era:

    German Immigration in Maryland - Overview
    http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/germansumm.html

    German Immigration to Maryland - Chronology of German Immigration 1680-1830
    http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/german1c.html

    German Immigration in Maryland -Germans in Maryland History
    Charles Frederick Wiesenthal (1726-1789) - interesting! He was naturalized in the same year as our Jacob Rupp
    [http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/frameset2.html]

    German Immigration in Maryland - Social Organizations
    http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/germansoc.html

    German Immigration in Maryland - Redemption Trade
    http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/germanredmpt.html

    *****
    The German Migration; pgs 146 - 151 (excerpt from Carolina Cradle, Settlement of the Northwest Carolina Frontier, 1747 - 1762; copyright Robert Ramsey, 1964)
    [http://www.mountainwizard.net/reecehistory/Cradle/Migration.htm]

    *****
    German Immigrant Culture in America - Syllabus 1994, rev. 1998
    http://www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/merrill/home.html

    *****
    Zion History: The Virtual Tour:

    Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    http://www.zionbaltimore.org/worship_luther_page1.htm

    Zion In The Eighteenth Century
    http://www.zionbaltimore.org/vthistory_1700s_eighteenth_century_main.htm

    Dr. Charles Frederick Wiesenthal
    http://www.zionbaltimore.org/vthistory_historians.htm

    *****
    see http://www.carrollbiz.org/pdf/2004_DCarchive_web.pdf (mentions Roop's Mill built in 1795 in Carroll County, Maryland)

    ****

    History of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland of the United Lutheran church in America, 1820-1920
    by Rev. Prof. Abdel Ross Wentz
    P. 359-360
    IMMANUEL LUTHERAN CHURCH, MANCHESTER, MD.
    Rev. C. G. Leatherman, Pastor.
    Immanuel congregation, of Manchester, was organized February 12, 1760, and is, doubtless, the oldest Lutheran congregation in the county. The organization likely antedates the erection of the church. Unfortunately, the time of the building of this oldest Lutheran-Reformed church is lost. The first church was a
    log structure, built, owned and used jointly by the Lutheran and Reformed congregations, and located east of the present edifice, on ground now used for burial purposes. This original log structure was the oldest and first house of worship erected by these denominations in Carroll County. Maryland.
    http://ia600202.us.archive.org/14/items/historyofevangel00wentiala/historyofevangel00wentiala.pdf
  • Change Date: 26 NOV 2017 at 21:46:24

    Father: Johann Jacob RUPP b: 27 APR 1689 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    Mother: Maria Apollonia FETZER b: 21 OCT 1689 in Steinseltz, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France

    Marriage 1 Maria Barbara NONNENMACHER b: 17 NOV 1722 in Merkwiller, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    • Married: 7 FEB 1746 in Kutzenhausen, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France 3 4 5
    Children
    1. Has No Children Jörg Heinrich Rupp b: 17 NOV 1746 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    2. Has Children Johann Jacob Rupp b: 22 DEC 1747 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    3. Has Children Johann Michel "Michael" Rupp b: 6 APR 1749 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    4. Has Children Johann Martin Rupp b: 6 MAR 1751 in Oberhoffen-lès-Wissembourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
    5. Has Children Anna Maria "Mary" Rupp b: ABT 1753 in Pennsylvania or Maryland
    6. Has No Children George Rupe b: ABT 1755 in Pennsylvania or Maryland
    7. Has Children Barbara Rupp b: ABT 1759 in Manchester, Baltimore County (present-day Carroll County), Maryland
    8. Has No Children Johann "John" Rupe b: ABT 1762 in Baltimore County, Maryland
    9. Has Children Henry RUPE b: ABT 1765 in Baltimore County, Maryland

    Sources:
    1. Title: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Publication: browsable images of parish and civil records. Any utilization other than for private use, even non-commerical, is subject to a signed license agreement.
      Abbrev: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Page: Steinseltz, Paroisse protestante (réformée), BMS, 1685-1787, 3 E 4791/1, image 36 of 268, right page, 6th entry under MDCCXXIII
      Note: 1723 Baptismal Record. (http://archives.bas-rhin.fr/detail-document/ETAT-CIVIL-C475-P84-R91519#visio/page:ETAT-CIVIL-C475-P84-R91519-1768994 : accessed 26 May 2013)
      Quality: 3
    2. Title: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Publication: browsable images of parish and civil records. Any utilization other than for private use, even non-commerical, is subject to a signed license agreement.
      Abbrev: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Page: Steinseltz, Paroisse protestante (réformée), BMS, 1685-1787, 3 E 4791/1, image 169 of 268, left page, 3rd entry
      Note: 1737 Confirmation Record. (http://archives.bas-rhin.fr/detail-document/ETAT-CIVIL-C475-P84-R91519#visio/page:ETAT-CIVIL-C475-P84-R91519-1769128 : accessed 16 June 2013).
      Quality: 3
    3. Title: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Publication: browsable images of parish and civil records. Any utilization other than for private use, even non-commerical, is subject to a signed license agreement.
      Abbrev: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Page: Kutzenhausen, Parroise protestante, BMS, 1737-1784, 3 E 253/13, image 14 of 54, bottom left
      Note: 1746 Marriage Record (part 1). (http://archives.bas-rhin.fr/detail-document/ETAT-CIVIL-C253-P2-R162400#visio/page:ETAT-CIVIL-C253-P2-R162400-1253097 : accessed 25 May 2016)
    4. Title: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Publication: browsable images of parish and civil records. Any utilization other than for private use, even non-commerical, is subject to a signed license agreement.
      Abbrev: Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin (67)
      Page: Kutzenhausen, Parroise protestante, BMS, 1737-1784, 3 E 253/13, image 14 of 54, top right
      Note: 1746 Marriage Record (part 2). (http://archives.bas-rhin.fr/detail-document/ETAT-CIVIL-C253-P2-R162400#visio/page:ETAT-CIVIL-C253-P2-R162400-1253097 : accessed 25 May 2016)
    5. Title: Eighteenth Century Emigrants from the Northern Alsace to America
      Author: Annette Kunsel Burgert
      Abbrev: Annette Kunsel Burgert
      Publication: Camden Press, Camden, Maine, 1992
      Abbrev: Eighteenth Century Emigrants from the Northern Alsace to America
      Page: pg. 413
      Note: Photocopy of 4 pages received from Louise Roop Akers in March 2001.