Name: Qutb ud-din Muhammad TIMUR 1 2
Birth: 1336 in Kesh, near Samarkand 1 2
Death: 1405 1 2
Change Date: 16 OCT 2001 1 2
Timur Pronounced As: timoor or Tamerlane tamrlan , c.1336-1405, Mongol con queror, b. Kesh, n ear Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur t he lame]. He was the son of a tribal lead er, and he claimed (apparently f or the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan . With an ar my composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empi re of the M ongols, Timur spent his early military career in subduing h is rivals in what is now Turkistan ; by 1369 he firmly controlled the enti re area from his capital at Samarkand. Campaigns he wa ged against Pers ia occupied him until 1387. By that time he had in his possession the lan ds s tretching E from the Euphrates River. He advanced (1392) across the E uphrates, conquered th e territory between the Caspian and Black seas, a nd invaded several of the Russian states. B y weakening the Crimean Tata rs he helped clear the way for the conquests of the grand duchy o f Mosco w. Timur abandoned some of his Russian conquests to return to Samarkand a nd invade (13 98) India along the route of the Indus River. He took Del hi and brought the Delhi Sultanate t o an end, but he withdrew with litt le addition to his domain.
In 1400, Timur ravaged Georgia and proceeded to the Levant, where he to ok Aleppo and Baghdad . His next war was fought in Asia Minor against t he Ottoman Turks, and in 1402, at Angora, h e captured their sultan, Beyaz id I, who, contrary to popular belief, was well treated. Timu r died whi le planning an invasion of China. His tomb at Samarkand was long kno wn to archaeolo gists, but it is only recently that his skeleton, buri ed in a deep crypt, was found.
Timur's reputation is that of a cruel conqueror. After capturing certa in cities he slaughter ed thousands of the defenders (perhaps 80,000 at De lhi) and built pyramids of their skulls. A lthough a Muslim, he was scarce ly more merciful to those of his own faith than to those he co nsidered in fidels. His positive achievements were the encouragement of art, literatur e, and s cience and the construction of vast public works. He had little h ope that his vast conquest s would remain intact, and before his dea th he arranged for them to be divided among his sons . The Timurids are t he line of rulers descended from him. Christopher Marlowe's play Tambur la ine luridly recounts his conquests.
- JAHANGIR b: 1355
- Umar SHAIKH b: 1355
- Jalal ud-din Miranshah Sultan MIRZA b: 1366
- Shah RUKH b: 1377
- Title: samsloan.ged
Text: Date of Import: Jan 14, 2002
- Title: ralphroberts.ged
Text: Date of Import: Dec 15, 2003