Katherine of England : Birth: ABT 1262. Death: 5 SEP 1264
Title: Plantagenet Ancestry, 1st Edition, David Faris, 1996
Title: The Complete Peerage
Page: 3:170, 9:596, 10:393, 11:390, 12:433, 511, :177, 251, 960
Title: Plantagenet Ancestry, Douglas Richardson, 2004
Source: Britain's Royal Families, Alison Weir, 1996
Note: EARLDOM OF CHESTER
IXEDWARD Plantaganet, Longshanks, Earl of Chester, King of England (1272-1307), the third son of Henry III and his wife Eleanor, was born at Westminster on June 17, 1239 and during the reign of his father took active part in political affairs. On 14 February 1253/4 he was created the Earl of Chester. He was taken prisoner at Lewes in 1264, delivering the Earldom to Simon de Montfort who was slain at the battle of Evesham, 4 August 1265, whereby the Earldom of Chester returned to Edward. In 1272 he went on a Crusade as far as Acre, where his daughter Joan was born, and although he inherited the crown that year, he did not return to England until 1274, being crowned on August 19, 1274. It is significant of the times that he was able to thus move in a leisurely fashion across Europe without fear of disturbances at home. He fully accepted those articles of The Great Charter (Magna Charta) of King John which had been set aside at the beginning of his father's reign, and which required that the king should levy scutages and aids only with the consent of the Great Council or Parliament. The further requirement of the barons that they should name the ministers of the crown was allowed to fall into disuse. Edward was a capable ruler, and knew how to appoint better ministers than the barons were likely to choose for him. He was eminent not only as a ruler but as a legislator and succeeded in enacting many wise laws, because he knew that useful legislation is possible only when the legislator has an intelligent perception of the remedies needed to meet existing evils, and is willing to content himself with such remedies as those persons who are to be benefited by them are ready to accept. The first condition was fulfilled by Edward's own skill as a lawyer, and by the skill of the great lawyers whom he employed. The second condition was fulfilled by his determination to authorize no new legislation without the counsel and acquiescence of those who were most affected by it. Not until late in his reign did he call a whole parliament together as Earl Simon de Montfort had done. Instead, he called the barons together in any manner which affected the barons, and the representatives of the townsmen together in any manner which affected the townsmen, and so with other classes. In 1295 he summoned the "Model Parliament," so called because it became the form for future Parliaments.
Every king of England since the Norman Conquest had exercised authority in a twofold capacity: (1) as head of the nation and (2) as the feudal lord of his vassals. Edward laid more stress than any former king upon his national headship. Early in his reign he divided the Curis Regis into three courts: (1) The Court of King's Bench, to deal with criminal offenses reserved for the king's judgment and with suits in which he was himself concerned; (2) The Court of Exchequer, to deal with all matters touching the king's revenue; and (3) The Court of Common Pleas, to deal with suits between subject and subject. Edward took care that these Courts should administer justice, and dismissed judges and many other officials for corruption. In 1285 he improved the Assize of Arms of King Henry II., to assure national support for his government in time of danger. His favorite motto "Keep Troth" indicates the value he placed upon a man's oath.
Alexander III. was King of Scotland in the earlier part of Edward's reign, and his ancestors had done homage to Edward's ancestors, but, in 1189, William the Lion had purchased from Richard I possessions which Henry II. had acquired by the treaty of Falaise. The Lion's successors, however, held lands in England, and had done homage for them to the English kings. Edward would gladly have restored the old practice of homage for Scotland itself, but to this Alexander had never consented. Edward coveted the prospect of being lord of the entire island, as it would not only strengthen his position, but would bring the two nations into peaceful union. A prospect of effecting a union by peaceful means offered itself to Edward in 1285, when Alexander III. was killed by a fall from his horse, near Kinghorn. Alexander's only descendant was his grand-daughter Margaret, the child of his daughter and King Eric of Norway. In 1290 it was agreed that she should marry the Prince of Wales but that the two kingdoms should remain absolutely independent of each other. Unfortunately the Maid of Norway, as the child was called, died on her way to Scotland and this plan for establishing friendly relations between the two countries came to naught. If it has succeeded, three centuries of warfare and misery might possibly have been avoided.
Edward I. married in 1254 (1) Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Leon, and his wife Jeanne of Dammartin, who was the daughter of Simon Dammartin and his wife, Marie, Countess of Ponthieu, and on her death in 1279 that country came by descent to Eleanor. Jeanne of Dammartin died on November 20, 1290. Her body was brought for burial from Lincoln to Westminster, and the bereaved husband ordered the erection of a memorial cross at each place where the body rested. The years that followed were filled with wars with France and with difficulties in Scotland. Edward married September 8, 1299 (2) Margaret of France, daughter of Philip III., King of France. King Edward died, during the third invasion of Scotland, at Burgh-on-the-Sands near Carlisle, July 8, 1307, and was buried at Westminster. Margaret, the second wife of King Edward I., died February 14, 1317 and was buried at Grey Friars, London. It was King Edward I. who first conferred the title Prince of Wales, thus designating the fourth son, Edward, who was the oldest to survive, and who later became Edward II., King of England. The children of King Edward I. and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile were as follows (Ref: Parsons, "The Year of Eleanor of Castile's Birth and Her Children by Edward I." Medieval Studies, xlvi (1984), pp 249- 265, where Parsons lists 14 children with the probable existence of 2 more unnamed).
And then, as quoted by Prestwich, from J. Ayloffe's "An Account of the Body of King Edward the First, as it appeared on opening his Tomb in the year 1774," *Archeologia*, iii, , p. 381:
"The chin and lips were intire, [sic] but without any beard; and a sinking, or dip, between the chin and under-lip, was very conspicuous. Both the lips were prominent; the nose short, as if shrunk; but the apertures of the nostrils were visible. There was an unusual fall, or cavity, on that part of the bridge of the nose which separates the orbits of the eyes; and some globular substance. possibly the fleshy part of the eye-balls, was movable in their sockets under the envelope."
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