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1. Title:   drm1.ged
2. Title:   roberts.GED
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a. Note:   [ralphroberts.ged] [roberts.GED] [drm1.ged] Y Website info. Name: Thomas Jonathan Jackson , Jr. 1 Notes: Stonewall did go to school; however, education was rathe r primative in the hills of western Virginia at that time, and h is educational background was very poor. He desperately wanted t o go to college, but knew they could not afford it. He learned y ou could get a free education if you could get an appointment t o West Point. So, he studied very hard to take the exams for Wes t Point, but still came in second in the testing. However, whe n the young man who did receive the West Point appointment dropp ed out, Thomas was named to fill in and finally got his appointm ent to West Point. He was woefully unprepared to compete with th e other cadets at West Point. Most of them had come from well-to -do families and had good educational backgrounds. Thomas at th e end of his freshman year was almost last in his class standing s. However, he was so determined to make it and stay in West Poi nt that studied twice as hard as most other cadets. Each night b efore they called "lights out", he would put an extra scuttle o f coal on the fire (West Point used coal not wood at that time) , and then would stay up for hours studying by the light of coa l embers. He sometimes stayed up all night, or until the ember s burned out. Each year Thomas improved his class standing, an d by the time he graduated he finished 17th in a class of 59 . A very good class standing! One of the cadets said that if the y had one more year to go "old Tom" would probably finish firs t in his class! After graduation he went into the War with Mexic o. He not only distinguished himself in battle, but was called o ne of the heros of Chapultepec. He went into the war as a Lieute nant and came out a Brevet Major. He later resigned from the arm y and went to the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Va . as a professor of Natural Philosophy (now called physics), an d an instructor of artillery. He was considered a poor classroo m teacher, but was an excellent artillery instructor. His studen ts made fun of him behind his back because he was eccentric; how ever, they had great respect for him as an artillery instructor . One student said "Old Jack isn't much of a classroom teacher , but if we ever go to war, I want to be right there serving wit h him." And, indeed, some of his VMI students did serve with hi m in the War Between the States. When the war started, Thomas ma de the decision to go with his native state of Virginia and serv e the Confederacy. Because of his West Point background, excelle nt military experience in the U.S. Army, and intuitiveness abou t the enemy, he advanced rapidly to the rank of Lt. Gen. His me n were well aware of his eccentricities and considered him a har d task master, but had great admiration for his leadership quali fies. He was a very stern, somber, extremely-religious man who s eldom joked. However, he did have some quirks people thought wer e very funny. For example, he liked the taste of black pepper, b ut never ate it because he thought it made his left leg ache. H e loved fruit, but it became more and more scarce as the war wen t on. He had a particular fondness for lemons, and was often see n riding his horse sucking on a lemon. People knew about his lov e of lemons and would send them to him when they could get them . He thought a person should "redistribute" the blood in their b ody from time to time, and often was seen riding his horse holdi ng one arm up in the arm. Then when that arm tired, he would low er it and raise the other arm. He was "redistributing" the flo w of blood in his body! At the battle of First Manassa in the su mmer of 1861, General Barnard Bee tried to rally his men by sayi ng, "There stands Jackson like a stonewall. Rally around the Vir ginian". The name "Stonewall" stuck, and from that time until to day, Lt Gen Thomas Jonathan Jackson is better known as "Stonewal l". He acquired his nickname and his reputation at First Manass a from the firmness with which his brigade resisted the Norther n attack. He was accidently shot by his own men at the battle of Chancello rsville in May of 1863. He and some of his staff had been out in specting lines in the darkness, and when they were riding back t o camp they were mistaken by South Carolina troops as Union sold iers. The Confederate troops fired a volley of shots that kille d two staff members (including a general) and wounded others. Ge n Jackson was shot three times, but none of the wounds were thou ght to be fatal. The worst was a shattered upper arm, which ha d to be amputated because they had no way (or knowledge) to repa ir splintered bone in those days. He was believed to be on his w ay to recovery, but died a week later from pneumonia. General Ja ckson was taken back to his home in Lexington, Va for burial. H e is buried in the town cemetery right in the heart of the littl e town of Lexington. Other family members are buried in the sam e plot which is over- looked by a large statue of Jackson. His d eath was a very great loss to the Confederacy. He could not be r eplaced, but people of the South continued to hope for another J ackson right up to the end of the war. "Stonewall" Jackson, (1824-63), American soldier, considered b y military authorities an outstanding leader, a skilled tacticia n, and one of the ablest Confederate commanders. Jackson was born Thomas Jonathan Jackson on January 21, 1824, i n Clarksburg, Virginia (now in West Virginia), and was educate d at the U.S. Military Academy. Following his graduation (1846 ) from West Point he participated in the Mexican War until 1848 . He became an instructor at the Virginia Military Institute (VM I) in 1851, and the next year he resigned from the army. On th e outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, he left VMI to ent er the Confederate army. He was immediately commissioned a colon el and within months was given the rank of brigadier general. Ja ckson earned his popular nickname at the First Battle of Bull Ru n (1861), where his troops stood against the Union forces "lik e a stone wall," according to a colleague, Brig. General Barnar d E. Bee. While commanding his troops, the so-called Stonewall B rigade, during a campaign in the Shenandoah Valley in the sprin g of 1862, Jackson executed a remarkable tactical maneuver again st three Union armies then menacing Richmond. After driving bac k the army of General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (1816-94), whic h was advancing from the north, Jackson turned and defeated th e armies threatening to attack his rear ranks from the east an d west. Jackson subsequently took part, with General Robert E. Lee, in t he defeat of General George McClellan in the Seven Days' Battl e at Richmond. In August 1862, Jackson defeated the army of Gene ral John Pope, thus ensuring a Confederate victory at the Secon d Battle of Bull Run. Jackson then crossed the Potomac into Mary land with Lee, who ordered him to capture Harpers Ferry. His tas k accomplished in September 1862, Jackson rushed north to Antiet am Creek to aid Lee, who was under attack by an overwhelming Uni on force. Jackson commanded the right wing of the victorious Con federate army at Fredericksburg in December 1862. During the Rap pahannock campaign in Virginia the following spring, by launchin g a surprise attack on the rear columns of the Union army, Jacks on prevented the threatened encirclement of the Confederate forc es by the troops of General Joseph Hooker. On May 2, 1863, whil e leading his forces at Chancellorsville, Jackson was accidental ly shot and fatally wounded by his own men. "Jackson, Stonewall," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 96 Encyclopedia. ( c) 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. (c) Fun k & Wagnalls Corporation. All rights reserved. Father: Thomas Jonathan Jackson b: 1790 Mother: Julia B. Neale b: ABT. 1790 in Stafford Co., Va Marriage 1 Mary Anna Morrison Children 1. Mary Graham Jackson b: 30 APR 1858 2. Julia Jackson b: 23 NOV 1862 in Charlotte, North Carolina SE E NOTES Marriage 2 Eleanor Junkin


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