Margaret Plantagenet: Birth: 11 SEP 1275. Death: 1318
Blanche Plantagenet: Birth: 1290. Death: 1290
Eleanor Plantagenet: Birth: 17 JUN 1264. Death: 1298
Thomas "of Brotherton" Plantagenet: Birth: 1 JUN 1300. Death: AUG 1338
Thomas "of Brotherton": Birth: 1 JUN 1300. Death: 1338
Edmund Plantagenet Of Woodstock Earl Of Kent: Birth: 8 MAY 1301. Death: 1330
John Boteourt: Birth: ABT 1304.
Eleanor: Birth: 4 MAR 1305/06.
Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage 104th Edition
Note: NS0042481 NS0042483
Publication: 104th Ed. 1967
Title: Brian Tompsett
Note: NS0040561 NS0040562 NS0040563
Note: [ralphroberts.ged] [roberts.GED] [sandberg.ged] Edward I Edward I (1272-1307), who succeeded his father, was an able administrator and law-maker. He re-established royal power, investigating many of the abuses resulting from weak royal government and issuing new laws. Edward was an effective soldier, gaining experience from going on crusade to Syria before he became king. In 1277 Edward invaded Wales where Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Wales, had built up considerable power. In a series of campaigns Edward gained control of Wales, building strong castles to secure his conquests. Llewelyn was subdued before his death, by the 1277 treaty of Conway. In 1284, the Statute of Wales brought Wales under Edward's rule. In 1301, he created his eldest surviving son, Edward, the first English Prince of Wales. Wanting to unite the country behind him and to raise money for his campaigns in Wales and Scotland (including another war in France in 1293), in 1295 the king called what became known as the 'Model Parliament'. To this he summoned not only the aristocracy, bishops and abbots, but also the knights of the shires, burgesses from the towns and junior clergy. (Although resembling Parliament in approximately its modern form, for most of the middle ages a parliament meant primarily the king and the lords, with the commons meeting separately. Under pressures of war, and the subsequent need for extraordinary taxation, parliament became a regular feature of royal rule, and his system of representation subsequently became more usual.) In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland, successfully seizing the Stone of Scone; the king John Balliol abdicated and surrendered to Edward. However, a guerrilla war broke out and William Wallace, the Scottish leader, defeated the English at Stirling Bridge in 1297. Wallace was finally captured and executed in 1305. Edward died in 1307, when he was about to start another campaign against the Scots and their leader, Robert Bruce. Tompsett adds: In the Barons war 1264-67 he defeated the Barons at Evesham (1265) as King he is noted for encouraging Parliamentary institutions at the expense of feudalism and for subduing Wales on which he imposed the English system of administration. He later tried to assert his authority over Scotland and died while on his way to fight Robert Bruce.[roberts.GED] King of England 1272-1307[rjduncan.ged] He was King of England, 1272-1307.[ddandrm2.ged] EDWARD I, KING OF ENGLAND 1272-1307 Edward was born in 1239. He was married twice. Firstly at a very young age to Eleanor of Castile, who died in 1290 and whom bore him the children: Eleanor, Joan, Henry, Julian, Joan of Acre, Alphonso, Isabel Margaret, Berengaria, Mary, Alice, Elizabeth, Beatrice and Blanche. His second wife, Margaret of France, daughter of the King of France, bore him Thomas, Edmund and Eleanor. Edward was a special child to his father. He was born very late in Henry's life. He was named after the canon, Edward the Confessor, and although his title says Edward I, there were three Edwards previous to him. It was Henry who arranged for the important marriage of Edward to Eleanor, the half-sister of Alfonso X, King of Castile and Leon. It was an arranged marriage which bore many children. Edward was made Overlord of Ireland, before he became King, and was responsible for Gascony and Wales. He was a typically spoilt adolescent and liked to spend his time setting up jousting tournaments, in which many lives would be lost at a time. However though he had once recognized the justice of Simon de Montfort's stance against his father, he rallied to help his father. It was his role as a general that helped quash De Montfort. He was his father's Regent and succeeded unchallenged to the throne. He did not become King until the age of 35. He was a devoted ruler of England and developed state relations all around the world. He also fought many wars and used a great deal of the funds of England in these battles. He borrowed heavily from the Jews in England. In 1290 Edward expelled the Jews from England. Being unable to borrow money, Edward had to impose high taxes on the local populations, which was of course highly unpopular. After having defeated and slain the last Welsh Prince of Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, Edward offered his baby son to the Welsh people as the Prince of Wales, in a symbolic gesture. The Welsh gave the English knowledge of the long bow, one of the most valued weapons before gunpowder, and Edward encouraged its use. The 'pacification' of the Welsh was not instant and it took years for the land and power to be delegated in face of harsh resentment. War with Scotland was causing great problems. It concerned an attempt to 'reconcile' the centre of Scotland from Edinburgh to Scone, the natural but 'unrecognized' seat of Scotland. When Alexander III, King of Scotland died, the crown passed to his three-year-old grand daughter, Margaret. When Margaret was aged six, Edward arranged for her to be betrothed to his heir Edward, which would have led to a peaceful union of England and Scotland. Margaret died in a shipwreck on the way to her coronation in Scotland, then the succession to the crown was disputed. Edward stepped in to arbitrate and with a 'balanced' Commission took eighteen months to choose John Balliol. This decision led to a revolt, which Edward managed to overcome. He declared himself King of Scotland and carried the Coronation Stone of Scotland from Scone Palace off to England. It was this that led to the revolt by William Wallace who was eventually defeated by Edward. In 1306 Robert the Bruce was declared King of the Scots by the Scottish people and in the ensuing war he was at first defeated by Edward. In a later campaign to crush Robert the Bruce, Edward died at Burgh by Sands, after being the monarch of England for 35 years. ---http://www.camelot-group.com not copied in its entirety quotation marks (') added to question appropriateness of particular words or phrases
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