Note: G�za, Grand Prince of the Hungarians From Wikipedia. G�za Grand Prince of the Hungarians Depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle Reign early 970s-997 Predecessor Taksony Successor Stephen Spouse Sarolt of Transylvania Issue Unnamed daughter, wife of Boleslaus I of Poland Unnamed daughter, wife of Gavril Radomir of Bulgaria King Stephen I of Hungary Unnamed daughter, wife of Otto Orseolo, Doge of Venice Unnamed daughter, wife of Samuel Aba, King of Hungary Father Taksony Born c. 940 Died 997 G�za (c. 945-997), also Gejza, born as Gye�csa, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians from the early 970s. According to the unanimous narration of nearly contemporary sources, he consolidated his authority over his subjects with extreme cruelty. On the other hand, he made peace with the Holy Roman Empire and supported Christian missionaries in his realm. He himself was also baptised (thus became the first Christian ruler of Hungary), but his faith remained shallow. His baptismal name was Stephen. Early life G�za was the elder son of Taksony, Grand Prince of the Hungarians. According to the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum, his mother was his father's wife "from the land of the Cumans". This anachronistic reference to the Cumans suggests that she was in fact of Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian origin. The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus did not make mention of G�za when listing the descendants of Grand Prince �rp�d around 950. Even so, Gyula Krist� proposes that G�za was born around 940, and the emperor ignored him because of his youth. The genuine form of his name was either "Gye�csa" or "Gyeusa" which seems to be a diminutive form of the Turkic yabgu title. His marriage with Sarolt, a daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian chieftain was arranged around 970 by his father. Gyula ruled Transylvania in fact independently of Taksony. He had converted to Christianity in Constantinople. Accordingly, his daughter, Sarolt seems to have also adhered to the Orthodox faith, which is confimed by Bruno of Querfurt's remark on her "languid and muddled Christianity". Reign G�za succeeded his father in the early 970s. For instance, P�l Engel states that he ascended in 972, while Mikl�s Moln�r proposes the years around that date. He adopted a centralizing policy which gave rise to his fame as a merciless ruler whose hands, according to the longer version of his son's Life, were "defiled with blood". Engel even argues that G�za carried out a "large-scale purge" against his relatives which explains the lack of references to other members of the �rp�d dynasty from around 972. Kopp�ny is the only exception who continued to rule the southern parts of Transdanubia. Following a marriage alliance between the German and Byzantine dynasties which brought about a rapproachement between the two powers neighboring Hungary in 972, G�za decided to make peace with the Holy Roman Empire. First a monk named Bruno sent by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor arrived in Hungary around 972. Hungarian "legates" were present at a conference held by the emperor in Quedlinburg in 973. [...] Geyza, who was strict and cruel, acting in a domineering way, as it were, with his own people, but compassionate and generous with strangers, especially with Christians, although [he was] still entangled in the rite of paganism. At the approach of the light of spiritual grace, he began to discuss peace attentively with all the neighboring provinces [...]. Moreover, he laid down a rule that the favor of hospitality and security be shown to all Christians wishing to enter to his domains. He gave clerics and monks leave to enter his presence; he offered them a willing hearing, and delighted them in the germination of the seed of true faith sown in the garden of his heart. \emdash Hartvic: Life of King Stephen of Hungary A record on one Bishop Prunwart in the Abbey of Saint Gall mentions his success in baptising many Hungarians including their "king". The nearly contemporary Thietmar of Merseburg confirms that the so far pagan Hungarians' conversion to Christianity started under G�za who thus was the first Christian ruler of Hungary. His baptismal name was Stephen. However, G�za did not cease to observe pagan cults which proves that his conversion to Christianity was never complete. Krist� and other historians propose that the first Roman Catholic diocese in Hungary, with its seat in Veszpr�m, was set up in his reign, but their view has not been unanimously accepted. On the other hand, a charter issued in his son's reign states that G�za was the founder of the Benedictine Pannonhalma Archabbey. [G�za] was very cruel and killed many people because of his quick temper. When he became a Christian, however, he turned his rage against his relictant subjects, in order to strenghten this faith. Thus, glowing with zeal for God, he washed away his old crimes. He sacrificed both to the omnipotent God and to various false gods. When reproached by his priest for doing so, however, he maintained that the practice had brought him both wealth and great power. \emdash Thietmar of Merseburg: Chronicum Taking advantage of internal conflicts which emerged in the Holy Roman Empire after Emperor Otto I' death, G�za invaded Bavaria and took the fortress of Melk in 983. The Bavarians launched a counter-attack in 991 which forced G�za to withdraw all Hungarian forces from the territories east of the Vienna Woods. Furthermore, he even renounced the lands east of the river Leitha in his peace treaty of 996 with Henry IV of Bavaria. G�za also arranged the marriage of his son and heir, Stephen with Henry IV's sister, Giselle. Even before this marriage alliance, G�za convoked the Hungarian leaders to an assembly and forced them to take an oath of accepting his son's reign after his death. Family Sarolt gave birth to at least three of G�za's children, including two unnamed daughters and Stephen who suceeded his father on the throne. Sarolt survived G�za which suggests that she was also the mother of G�za two youngest (also unnamed) daughters. Based on a Polish chronicle, Szabolcs de Vajay argues that their mother was G�za's alleged second wife, Adelhaid of Poland, but this theory has not been widely accepted. *Whether Menumorut is an actual or an invented person is debated by modern scholars. **A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian lady. ***The Aba family descending from them still flourished in the 14th century. References 1.^ a b c Kirschbaum 1995, p. 41. 2.^ Gyula Krist�, SZENT ISTV�N KIR�LY,Budapest, Neumann Kht., 2002 3.^ Krist� & Makk 1996, p. 26. 4.^ Anonymus, Notary of King B�la: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 57), p. 127. 5.^ Krist� & Makk 1994, p. 24. 6.^ a b c d e f g h i j Krist� 1994, p. 235. 7.^ a b Salagean 2005, p. 150. 8.^ a b Krist� & Makk 1994, p. 28. 9.^ a b c d e f g Engel 2001, p. 26. 10.^ Moln�r 2001, p. 26. 11.^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 51. 12.^ a b Berend, Laszlovszky & Szak�cs 2007, p. 329. 13.^ The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (ch. 2.31), p. 115. 14.^ Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary (ch. 2), pp. 379-380. 15.^ Berend, Laszlovszky & Szak�cs 2007, p. 331. 16.^ Engel 2001, p. 27. 17.^ Berend, Laszlovszky & Szak�cs 2007, pp. 350-351. 18.^ Engel 2001, p. 42. 19.^ Berend, Laszlovszky & Szak�cs 2007, p. 352. 20.^ Engel 2001, p. 43. 21.^ The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (ch. 8.4), p. 364. 22.^ a b Krist� & Makk 1996, p. 30. 23.^ Krist� & Makk 1996, p. 33. 24.^ a b c Krist� & Makk 1996, p. 29. 25.^ Krist� & Makk 1996, p. Appendices 1-2. Sources Primary sources Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary (Translated by Nora Berend) (2001). In: Head, Thomas (2001); Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology; Routledge; ISBN 0-415-93753-1. Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (Translated and annotated by David A. Warner) (2001). Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4926-1. Secondary sources Berend, Nora; Laszlovszky, J�zsef; Szak�cs, B�la Zsolt (2007). "The kingdom of Hungary". In Berend, Nora. Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus', c.900-1200. Cambridge University Press. pp. 319\endash 368. ISBN 978-0-521-87616-2. Engel, P�l (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895\endash 1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3. Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 963-482-113-8. Kontler, L�szl� (1999). Millenium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House. ISBN 963-9165-37-9. (Hungarian) Krist�, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az �rp�d-h�z uralkod�i [=Rulers of the House of �rp�d]. I.P.C. K�nyvek. ISBN 963-7930-973. (Hungarian) Krist�, Gyula (1994). "G�za". In Krist�, Gyula; Engel, P�l; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar t�rt�neti lexikon (9-14. sz�zad) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)]. Akad�miai Kiad�. p. 235. ISBN 963-05-6722-9. Moln�r, Mikl�s (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4. Salagean, Tudor (2005). "Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th\endash 14th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 133\endash 207. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
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