Bertha of Savoy : Birth: 21 Sep 1051. Death: 27 Dec 1087
Note: Pavia - Crowned Emperor Otto the Great Adelaide of Susa From Wikipedia Adelaide of Susa Adelaide of Susa (also Adelheid, Adelais, or Adeline; ca. 1014/1020 - 19 December 1091) was the Marchioness of Turin from 1034 to her death. She moved the seat of the march from Turin to Susa and settled the itinerant court there. She was the last of the Arduinici. Biography Born in Turin to Ulric Manfred II and Bertha, daughter of Oberto II around 1014/1020, Adelaide's early life is not well known. Her only brother predeceased her father in 1034, though she had two younger sisters, Immilla and Bertha. Thus, on Ulric's death, the great margraviate was divided between his three daughters, though the greatest part by far went to Adelaide. She received the counties of Ivrea, Auriate, Aosta, and Turin. The margravial title, however, had primarily a military purpose at the time and, thus, was not considered suitable for a woman. Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, therefore arranged a marriage between Adelaide and Herman IV, Duke of Swabia, to serve as margrave of Turin after Ulric's death (1034). The two were married in January 1037, but Herman died of the plague while fighting at Naples in July 1038. Adelaide remarried in order to secure her vast march to Henry of Montferrat (1041), but he died in 1045 and left her a widow for the second time. Immediately, a third marriage was undertaken, this time to Otto of Savoy (1046). With Otto she had three sons, Peter I, Amadeus II, and Otto. She also had two daughters, Bertha and Adelaide. Bertha, the countess of Maurienne, married the Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, while Adelaide married Rudolf of Rheinfeld, who opposed Henry as King of Germany. After 1060, Adelaide acted as regent for her sons. In 1068, Henry tried to divorce Bertha and consequently drove Adelaide to an intense hatred of him and his family. However, through the intervention of Bertha, Henry received Adelaide's support when he came to Italy to submit to Pope Gregory VII and Matilda of Tuscany at Canossa. Adelaide and Amadeus accompanied the humiliated emperor to Canossa. In gratitude for her mediation, Henry donated Bugey to Adelaide and her family and took back Bertha as his wife, returning to Germany. Adelaide later played the mediator between her two royal sons-in-law, Henry and the aforementioned Rudolf during the wars of the 1080s in Germany. She was an opponent of the Gregorian reform, though she honoured the papacy, and defender of the autonomy of abbacies. In 1091, Adelaide died, to the general mourning of her people, and was buried in the parochial church of Canischio (Canisculum), a small village on the Cuorgn� in the Valle dell'Orco, to which she had retired in her later years. In the cathedral of Susa, in a niche in the wall, there is a statue of walnut wood, beneath a bronze veneer, representing Adelaide, genuflecting in prayer. Above it can be read the inscription: Questa � Adelaide, cui l'istessa Roma Cole, e primo d'Ausonia onor la noma. Personality Adelaide had passed her childhood amongst the retainers of her father and had even learned the martial arts when young, bearing her own arms and armour. She was reputed to be beautiful and virtuous. She was pious, putting eternal things ahead of temporal. Strong in temperament, she did not hesitate to punish even the bishops and grandees of her realm. She patronised the minstrels and always received them at her court, urging them to compose songs emphasising religious values. She was a founder of cloisters and monasteries that transmitted the history of the region. One failure of Adelaide's career was the loss of the County of Albon. Family Adelaide and Herman IV, Duke of Swabia had at least three children: Gebhard I, Count of Sulzbach Adalbert I, Count of Windberg Adelaide, married Hermann von Peugen Adelaide and Otto of Savoy had five children: Peter I of Savoy Amedeus II of Savoy Otto, Bishop of Asti Bertha of Savoy, married Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Adelaide (died 1080), married Rudolf von Rheinfeld Legacy Adelaide is a featured figure on Judy Chicago's installation piece The Dinner Party, being represented as one of the 999 names on the Heritage Floor. Notes 1. Also given as 27 December. 2. Chicago, 121. 3. Herman is stated to have died after eighteen months of matrimony in July 1038. 4. "Adelaide of Susa". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adelaide of Susa. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/heritage_floor/adelaide_of_susa.php. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 5. Her burial is also placed in the former abbey church of San Giusto, Susa, now Susa Cathedral, or in Turin Cathedral. References Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation. London: Merrell (2007). ISBN 1858943701 Women's Biography: Adelaide of Turin and Susa There are letters written to and by Adelaide of Turin and Susa. Woman's name: Adelaide of Turin and Susa Woman's title: Countess of Turin and Savoy Woman's biography: Adelaide, heiress of the Ardoinid marquesses of Turin, was the daughter of Ulric-Manfred, marques of Turin, and Bertha, daughter of the Otbertine marques Otbert II. Bertha was ruling in the mark after her husband's death, since she was able to capture envoys who wished to cross Alps to Champagne and met in Piedmont, in 1037 (1). Ulric-Manfred and Bertha had three known daughters, Adelaide, Irmingarde or Immula, and Bertha. If they had a son, he predeceased his father, so Adelaide was heir to the mark. Immula married a Franconian noble, Otto of Schweinfurt, later duke of Swabia, and after his death, Ekbert marquess of Meissen; Bertha married Teto, an Aleramid marquess. Adelaide was married three times, carrying the mark of Turin with her to her husbands, but retaining control of it after their deaths. She was married by 1036 first to Herman, duke of Swabia, related by marriage to the emperor Conrad II, presumably to keep the mark of Turin allied to the crown and to counterbalance the power of the mark of Tuscany. Herman died in 1038. Adelaide's second husband was Henry, marquess of Montferrat, who died c.1044. The third, c. 1045, was Oddo I, Count of Savoy. That marriage united a large territory on both sides of the Alps with important Alpine passes. The union of Savoy and Turin made it one of the most powerful houses of the empire.(2) After Oddo's death (by May, 1060), Adelaide ruled from 1060 to 1091, with her sons and alone. This was a period of turmoil for the empire, weak central government, a period of church-reform, a push for clerical celibacy, and revolts in the cities. Adelaide furthered ecclesiastical reform cautiously, but kept a middle path between the papacy and the empire, maintaining the mark of Turin in the older traditions of government. Like Matilda of Tuscany, in the words of Previte-Orton, "she was the last of a race of marchional dynasts" (223). She refused to accept the autonomy of Asti, where there was a revolt at Asti against a bishop named by the emperor, presumably nominated by Adelaide, c.1061; in 1070 Adelaide captured and burnt the city with much slaughter and restored the bishop (Previte-Orton, 228). In March, 1091, again, she captured and almost wholly burnt Asti, nine months before her death in December. Adelaide and Oddo had five children, Peter I, Count of Savoy (died 1078), Amadeus II, Count of Savoy (died 1080), Otto, bishop of Asti, Bertha of Savoy, and Adelaide. Peter married a neice of the dowager empress, Agnes of Aquitaine; Adelaide married Henry IV's widowed brother-in-law, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia, and Bertha married the emperor Henry IV in 1066. That marriage began badly and Henry tried to repudiate her, but was firmly dissuaded by Peter Damian as papal legate and the German princes who worried about incurring the anger of her family. Thereafter the marriage apparently worked well, until she died in 1088. German opponents of the emperor elected Rudolf of Swabia (the younger Adelaide's husband) as anti-king, in March 1077, and the problem was only resolved when he died in 1080. In a battle between Henry IV and pope Gregory VII over the archbishopric of Milan and other bishops whom Henry had invested according to imperial custom which Gregory was fighting, the pope excommunicated him, and Henry got his bishops to declare the pope deposed, at Worms in January 1076. But when German princes rebelled and Henry had to get to Lombardy, where he had support, he appealed to his mother-in-law. He came with his wife and child and met with Adelaide and her son Amadeus at Coise. She demanded five bishoprics but instead apparently got a rich piece of Burgundy (Previte-Orton, 237, drawing on the Annals of Lambert of Hersfeld). Then she arranged for him and his party to make the difficult winter passage at Mount Cenis so he could get to Pavia, where he was joined by Lombard vassels, marquesses and bishops. Gregory went to Canossa and Henry followed him with his forces, and there negotiated through Matilda of Tuscany, Adelaide, Hugh of Cluny, and others, stood in snow, and was taken back into the church. Adelaide was one of the guarantors of the conditions agreed upon. See Gregory's letter to the German princes, 4.12, Jan.1077: "At last, overcome by his persistent show of penitence and the ugency of all present, we released him from the bonds of anathema and received him into the grace of Holy Mother Church, accepting from him the guarantees described below, confirmed by the signatures of the abbot of Cluny, of our daughters, the Countess Matilda, and the Countess Adelaide, and other princes, bishops and laymen who seemed to be of service to us."(3) Later, in 1080, Adelaide was persuaded to join Henry's party. She did not give him military support when he invaded Italy in 1081, though she did join forces with him in 1082, but she tried mainly to mediate between him and Countess Matilda.(4) When she accompanied him on one of his attacks on Rome, in 1084, she demanded and secured the release of abbot Benedict of Chiusa whom he had captured on his way to Monte Cassino (Previte-Orton, 249). Adelaide's paternal grandmother, Prangarda, was the daughter of Atto of Canossa; she brought a large dower of land in the counties of Parma and Reggio to the marriage. Her brother, Tedald, the first marquess of Tuscany of the Canossa line was a grandfather of countess Matilda. Adelaide was thus a second cousin of Matilda of Tuscany and together they ruled massive territories in northern Italy. Biographical notes: (1)CW Previte Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, 1000-1233 (Cambridge: University Press, 1912), 207. Much of the material on Adelaide is based on this work. (2)It was through this marriage that the house of Savoy, which was to become the ruling house of a united Italy in the 19th century, acquired their first Italian lands. (3) The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII, trans. Ephraim Emerton, New York: Columbia University, 1932. (4)See Benzo, bishop of Alba, Ad Henricum IV, Imperatorem, book 6, folio 99, MGH SS, 11.663. Birth date: Birth place: Death date: 1091 Letters Sender(s): Receiver(s): Date: Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1049, July 4 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1041 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1075, July 23 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1078, July 16 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1079, July 4 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1081, May 16 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1083, April 22 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1072, March 16 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1078, October 26 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1062, October 20 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1043/1044 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1064, September 8 Adelaide of Turin and Susa public 1065, March 14 Adelaide of Turin and Susa, and Henry, marquis public 1043, May 20 Benzo, bishop of Alba Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1080 Benzo, bishop of Alba Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1080 Alexander II, pope Adelaide of Turin and Susa c.1066-67 Benzo, bishop of Alba Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1080 Benzo, bishop of Alba Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1080 Peter Damian Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1064 Gregory VII, pope Adelaide of Turin and Susa 1073, December 7 Epistol�: Medieval Women's Letters http://epistolae.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/ Epistol� is a collection of letters to and from women in the Middle Ages, from the 4th to the 13th century. The letters, written in Latin, are linked to the names of the women involved, with English translations and, where available, biographical sketches of the women and some description of the subject matter or the historic context of the letter.
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